(with related terms along with older usage and spelling alternatives)
  A number of these terms refer to various types of tools manufactured by axe and/or edge tool manufacturers. They are included for the purposes of indicating the type of tool(s) certain marks were used on. Some technological terms are also included. Other entries relate to the terminology associated with logging and other activities commonly associated with the use of axes and similar tools. Some terms relate to designs, patterns and/or parts.
   Many of the terms included are for clarification related to articles intended for this web site or other articles associated with the author. Some spelling is based on applicable usage of the time. Other terms apply to the logging, lumbering or related industries as they were often used in conjunction with the subjects mentioned.
back cut: the last falling cut, located on the reverse side of the tree, between one and two inches above the deepest part of the notch, that permits the tree to fall.(also: felling cut)
backwoodsman: a person who works in heavily wooded areas that are usually uninhabited or sparsely inhabited and away from populated areas.
bag axe: (bag hatchet) the term appears to be rather contemporary and applies to a flatter version of the what is frequently referred to as a belt axe. Such axes/hatchets lay flat on the back of a shooting bag or in a back pack.(see: belt axe)
balloon pattern: another term used to describe the shape of a “cedar” pattern axe. (also: butterfly pattern)
barber’s chair: a slang term used to describe the sliver or elongated section of rough wood that is pulled from the inner portion of the trunk as the tree falls over.
bark mark: a mark in the form of a symbol chopped into the bark on the side of a felled tree to indicate ownership. Often used in addition to the end mark or brand. (also: side mark, catch mark, contramarque [French Canadian] )
barking axe: another name given to a large version of a cooper’s side axe. These axes had a thin, rectangular blade and a rather short, offset handle. They were used to remove or strip the bark from logs.
bark spud: (see: peeling iron)
basal axe: a term used for an axe supposedly used to mark a tree at 4 1/2 feet above the ground. The cross-sectional area at that point would be used to help determine the density of the forest by indicating those trees that had been measured. Quite possibly a term used only in certain locations.
base: (stump)  the lowest portion of a tree (not more than three feet) that protrudes above the ground.
beard: the portion of the cutting edge and cheek, including the heel, that extends below the axe handle and beyond the extreme of the eye or socket.
bearded axe: a general style of axe where the lower end or rear corner of the blade, including the heel of the cutting edge, extends considerably beyond the eye or socket thereby permitting the user to grip the handle or half directly above and in line with the cutting edge thereby providing more control when paring or shaving. (common on coach maker’s axes, goosewing  axes and some European style felling axes.)
beetle:  a name sometimes applied to a large mallet (usually wood but in some cases metal) with a large head  that is used to drive wedges for splitting logs, drive together large wood joints in timber framing or pound down paving stones.
belt axe: (belt hatchet) a boxy shaped small axe or hatchet with a straight handle of a suitable size intended to be carried by inserting the handle under a belt or by hanging the axe in a suitable holder attached to a belt.  (see: bag axe)
bench axe: (see: broad hatchet, also: bench hatchet)
bevel: an angular surface along the side edges of an axe intended to reduce binding.
beveled handle: an axe handle with flattened surfaces processed along the corners resulting in an octagonal cross section greater in one dimension than the other. The resulting edges are somewhat eased to eliminate any sharpness.
billhook: (bill hook ... as used in some older American references) a one handed edge tool with either one or two cutting edges made in a variety of configurations involving curved and straight edges. Usually between 14” an 18” in length including the handle that fits into a metal socket. Dimensions, complexity and applications vary considerably. Primarily European in origin and also traceable to early development in the mid and far east.
Biscayan Axe: iron trade axes with short bits and no poll originally made in Northern Spain and used by the Spanish and French as trade axes. (also: French trade axe)
biscuit axe: a 2 pound, single bit axe with a handle approximately 24” long that was used in place of a mallet to pound biscuit dough. The cutting edge was cut off so the thickness of the resulting edge became about 1/2“ thick. Said to be found only in the coastal areas of Maryland, these modified axes may have been fashioned as a traditional or convenient substitute for a proper heavy mallet thus rendering the original axe useless as a chopping tool.
bit (bitt): the metal that constitutes the cutting edge of an axe or adz, frequently made of harder metal than the rest of the head.
blacksmith: a person that makes and repairs metal (usually iron) items by means of heating and striking to form or weld the pieces together.
blade: a term used to refer to the tapered portion of the axe head including the actual cutting edge.
blaze: the process of removing a section of bark with an axe that exposes bare wood which is then viewed as a reference to mark a route or path. This operation can also be accomplished by applying a spot of highly visible paint. Each successive blazed mark must be visible from the position of the previous mark. (also: blazing, plaqueing [French Canadian] )
blazer’s axe: a small double bit axe used for marking trees while engaged in determining a route or path. (see: blazing) (also: forester’s axe)
blocking axe: (see: box axe)
bloom: n. (blome) 1. a bar of steel prepared for rolling.
      2. a mass of wrought iron ready for further working.
      3. a lump of metal.
boom dog: a pointed, forged iron wedge with an integral ring on the opposite end  that measures approximately 6 inches overall. Such dogs were driven into the ends of logs, a chain was attached and connected to an adjacent log by the same means. (also: boom spike, rafting dog,  chain dog, eye spike)
boom spike: (see: boom dog)
bloomery:  a furnace and forge where wrought iron in the form of blooms is made directly from the iron ore. More infrequently cast iron was used.
blow-down: a tree or group of trees that has been knocked over by strong winds and/or other storm effects. (see: wash-out)
blue gum: seemingly the wood of choice for axe handles made and used in Tasmania and other parts of Australia.
boarding axe: A medium weight axe, much like a hatchet but some also known with a long handle. The heads consist of an axe blade and an extended pick-like spike opposite the blade. Used for clearing debris and entangled rigging and adapted as a weapon by numerous maritime enterprises. Made in a number of design variations. Also referred to as a spiked tomahawk.
boat axe: an axe with lugs and a relatively straight cutting edge on a head that angles in to a thick, flat poll.; less massive than a booming axe.
bog axe: a large bladed axe similar to a double-beveled broad axe with a sharpened front edge perpendicular to the curved primary edge, mainly used to cut peat blocks or bricks for use as fuel. (also: sod axe, peat axe)
bog iron: iron that has been smelted from what was once iron-rich mud that solidified is called bog ore and is found in some marshes and along some river banks.
bole: the lower portion of a tree trunk, often larger in diameter with irregular grain due to the tree bending or swaying in the wind.
bolt: (as related to a piece of raw wood) usually a wedge shaped section of a log that has resulted from splitting apart a larger section of log.
boom: 1. a line of logs connected at the ends forming a floating barrier to confine logs within a given area or used to direct logs when floating past areas where they will get stuck.
    2. the enclosed area within a surrounding line of logs.  
booming axe: a wide, single bit axe with the width of the poll greater than any other portion of the axe head for use in driving grabs and dogs; similar to a boat axe, but wider and thicker and with a curved cutting edge. (also: boom axe, rafting axe)
boom dog: a pointed, forged iron wedge with an integral ring on the opposite end  that measures approximately 6 inches overall. Such dogs were driven into the ends of logs, a chain was attached and connected to an adjacent log by the same means. (also: boom spike, rafting dog,  chain dog, eye spike)
boom man:  1. a person that manipulates logs collected  into a log boom. (also: log driver)
          2.  a man that operates a crane-like device called a boom, sometimes to lift or move logs .
boom spike: (see: boom dog)
box: (see: undercut, notch) also the area between two horizontal saw cuts that, when removed, provides space for a tree to lean.
box axe: a long-bitted axe similar to a mortise axe used to cut the box related to the turpentine gathering process. (also: blocking axe)
boy’s axe: an axe with a lighter head (2 1/4 lb.) than a regular axe and a handle that measures approximately 28”. (also: youth’s axe)
Boy Scout axe: (see: scout axe)
brand: an identifying name, mark or label on or applied to a product of a particular company; similar to but not necessarily a trademark.
branding axe: a single bit axe with a raised or extended design located on or extending from the poll and used to impress a mark into the end grain of a log to indicate ownership.
broad axe: 1. a style of axe with a long cutting edge that is usually flat on one face and has an offset handle to permit chopping close to a layout line or surface on the flat side of the axe. The design is usually symmetrical thus permitting the handle to be positioned for either right or left hand use but there were designs that were specifically made for right or left hand use.
    2. usually a long, two-handed, straight-handled axe quite similar to the style of those with a shorter offset handle, sometimes with a shorter cutting edge and used for  scoring the timber across the surface prior to squaring or hewing. The long handle allows the user to work in a more upright standing position. Often used prior to the using an  offset handled broad axe. Some were beveled both sides. (also: hewing axe, side axe, squaring axe)
broad hatchet: a flat backed hatchet ground on one face only and fitted with a straight hatchet style handle. (also: bench axe, bench hatchet)
bronzing: coloring an axe head or the applied design with paint containing bronzing powders.
brush axe: (see: bush axe)
brushing hook: a heavy duty curved bladed cutting tool much like a sickle on a long handle. More common in Great Britain.
brush rake: a heavy duty tool with a curved blade shaped like the upper portion of a shovel. The tool is affixed to a handle like a regular hoe blade but  can also be used for digging as well as scraping. The handle is usually approximately 38 inches long.
bucking: cross cutting felled trees or long logs into shorter lengths appropriate for their intended future use or more convenient transportation and processing.  Traditionally this was accomplished by using a cross cut saw or chain saw. Mechanized equipment is now commonly utilized. (also: log bucking) (see: underbucking)
bull axe: one of the names used for an axe with a protruding extension of the poll and used for slaughtering large animals. (see: killing axe, butchering axe, pole axe) (also: ox axe)
bumping: the process of removing limb ends and stubs from felled trunks. Contemporary practices involve using a chain saw. Older practices involved using an axe. (also: knot bumping)
bush axe: a broad, hook shaped head usually with the inside of the hook and the elongated extended edge sharpened, the head is secured to the handle with two (sometimes three) straps or inserted through an eye with or without an additional strap. (also: brush hook, farm axe)
bushman: (Australian) a term for a person who works in the bush or undeveloped areas of a forest; a  faller, a feller. (also: bushie, backwoodsman)
bushman’s axe: a term used in Australia and New Zealand to denote a specific style of single bit axe used for felling.
burst the chip: a term used to describe the removal of a chip of wood when chopping in a sudden and forceful manner resulting in the chip being completely removed from the pocket or the cut.
butchering axe: an axe with a hammer section protruding from the poll  and used for the slaughtering of animals. The name was determined by the applied or intended use. (also: bull axe, pole axe)
butt: 1. a term used to refer to the end of an axe handle.
    2.  a term sometimes used in England and Australia when referring to the back or poll of an axe head. (see: socket)
        3.  the section of tree  that was closest to the ground or closest to the trunk before it was felled.
butterfly pattern:  another term used to describe the shape of a “cedar” axe. (also: balloon pattern)
acid etched: the processing of marking a piece of metal by applying an acid in a controlled fashion so it can dissolve the surface of the metal. A pattern or design is usually obtained by blocking out the area not to be etched with asphaltum or some other acid resisting material. (Commonly but erroneously referred to as embossed.)
adze: (adz) an axe-like tool with the cutting edge positioned perpendicular to the axis of the handle, used for smoothing wood. (see: carpenter’s adze, lipped adze)
adze eye: the opening through the head of an axe or other striking tool that is symmetrical either as a rectangle or as a lozenge shape that tapers with the top being larger than the end where the handle protrudes.
American National Standards Institute: (A.N.S.I.) A private nonprofit organization founded in 1918 by five engineering societies and three government agencies to administrate and coordinate a voluntary standardization system with the primary goal of enhancing global competitiveness of U.S. business and the American quality of life by promoting and facilitating voluntary consensus standards and conformity assessment systems and promoting their integrity.
American style axe: initially a term used to describe American made axes with heavy polls which provided more balance to the axe as it was swung. The term expanded to also include axes with the American style of eye, a tapered elongated oval.
Andy hoe: (see: heath mattock)
apron axe: a double-beveled axe with a 10 to 13  inch concave cutting edge shaped to fit the contour of a tree and used for making cuts required in the turpentine harvesting process. (see: cupping axe, turpentine axe)
asphalt axe: a double-bitted axe-like striking tool that has elongated, narrow blades that are used to cut asphalt and/or  remove or align paving blocks. These axes utilize a pick axe handle. (also: paving stone mattock)
axe: (ax) a striking or swinging tool with a metal head and a long wooden handle. (Some contemporary handles are made of other compositions.) The head has one or two cutting edges that are usually in line with the axis of the handle. The shapes and weights of the heads varied considerably but generally speaking, an axe required the use of two hands and includes a handle long enough for that purpose, as compared to a hatchet which has a short handle and could be used with one hand. The “ax” spelling was more prevalent in North America, especially in the 17th and 18th centuries.
axaroon: an axe and pickaroon combination tool used in situations where occasional chopping is required.
axeman: one who uses an axe to fell trees or cut logs (as compared to a sawyer or one who uses a saw for similar work). (also: axe man, axman)
cable cutting axe: a heavy duty axe that may be in a variety of forms usually with a heavy head ground to be most efficient in cutting metal strands as found in cables and heavy rope. The intended use is not to cut wood. Handle length varies with the circumstances.  
camp axe: an axe with a lighter head (2 1/4 lb.) than a regular axe and a handle that measures around 19”. (also: half axe)
cant-dog: (see cant-hook)
cant-hook: a strong wooden lever with a protruding steel lip at the end aligned with a movable hook attached to the ferrule; used to grab and roll logs. The predecessor of the Peavey and used instead of the word “peavey.” (also: cant- dog or turning hook)
car builders hatchet: hatchets that were made with basically the same head as a rig builders hatchet but were fitted with a regular length handle. They were originally made for use in constructing wooden railroad box cars and later adopted for use in constructing crates and for concrete form work.
carpenter’s adze: an adze with a flat poll that could be used for driving pegs or light nails. (also: foot adze, house adze)
cartouche: a scroll-like ornament, tablet or graphic representing such a design on or in which lettering is applied, an oval or oblong figure with a design inside; a component portion of a design frequently used on letterheads and bill heads between the late 1800s and the early 1900s.
cast: the process by which an article is made by melting the primary material and then pouring it into a pre-shaped mold thereby producing a piece that is very close to the final shape and size.
cast steel: the material made by a process wherein the steel was made in a crucible and then poured into a mold resulting in a manageable material that could be hardened and tempered. Cast steel resulted in a uniformly hard metal capable of achieving and holding a sharpened edge.
cat’s eye: the shape of the opening through the axe head that is wider at one end than at the other thus resembling that of a cat’s eye. The corresponding shape of the handle end that gets fitted into the head opening.
catalog: (also: catalogue) 1. a complete list of goods and/or articles offered or presented for a purpose such as being offered for sale, frequently with brief descriptions, comments and often illustrations.
    2. the actual printed document containing such a listing.
catalog house: a large concern that engaged in commerce strictly via listings in a catalog exclusive of showrooms, frequently only by mail order.
caulked: term used to indicate that the end of an axe handle is enlarged to reduce the possibility of the handle slipping through the chopper’s hands.
caulks (calks): 1. shoes or boots with sharp pointed spikes through the soles to help reduce the shoes or boots from slipping on wet bark or irregular surfaces.
    2. spikes attached to the bottoms of horseshoes to help the animal to maintain better traction and prevent slipping.
cedar axe: a medium weight axe, either single of double bit, with broad curved cutting edges suitable for cutting small softwood trees and saplings. (also called Mexican cedar axe, balloon pattern, butterfly pattern)
cedar hacker: a somewhat localized term used to describe wood cutter s that were specifically employed to cut down cedar trees in Texas. Those cedar trees are more like large, thick shrubs.
ceremonial axe: an axe that may or may not be functional, that is used primarily for show and/or includes a logo, device or embellishment representing some group.
chasing: (see: limbing)
chain dog: a boom dog with a short length of chain attached. (see: boom dog)
chainsaw axe: (also: chain saw axe) (see: undercutter axe)
charcoal fire: heat source used for making axes prior to the utilization of anthracite coal.
cheek(s): 1. On an axe, the larger areas between the cutting edge (or the two cutting edges) and faces. On some axes and hatchets the location of stamped markings. (sometimes referred to as the face)
     2. the relatively flat side(s) of the head of a striking tool.
the side(s) of the head of a striking tool. On an axe, the larger areas between the cutting edge and poll or the two cutting edges, usually where the markings are located. (also: face)
chemical treatment: the material used in the cooling portion of heat treatment.
chip: a piece of wood dislodged from a tree during the process of chopping.
chisel axe: 1. an axe, one end of which is a regular axe blade and the other end a heavy duty chisel ranging in width from approximately 1 inch to 2 inches. This type design appeared in conjunction with an axe handle patent issued in 1889. (later called: chainsaw axe, undercutter axe)
    2. (see: twybill)
clear-cut: an area or tract of land where all the trees have been felled and usually removed as part of the same operation.
chisel axe: 1. an axe, one end of which is a regular axe blade and the other end a heavy duty chisel ranging in with from approximately 1 inch to 2 inches. This type design appeared in conjunction with an axe handle patent issued in 1889. (later called: chainsaw axe, undercutter axe)
    2. (see: twybill)
clear-cut: An area in which all of the trees have been or will be felled, bucked and skidded in one operation. When all trees in a given area are felled.
choking: holding the handle of an axe close to the head when chopping as compared to utilizing the full potential of the  handle.
chopping axe: a relatively lightweight single bit axe used to remove or lop off branches from a felled log. (also: lopping axe)
clearing axe: 1. (see Pulaski) (also: forester’s fire axe)
          2. an axe primarily used to cut small trees and heavy brush close to ground level.
          3. a term applied to an axe-like or scythe-like tool with a short replaceable blade held between a “U” shaped brack- et. such a tool is swung along the surface of the ground to clear brush and not used to actually chop through individual stems.
climbing spikes: (also: gaffs, spurs, irons) a pair of metal frames in the form of an “L” with a spike or spur extending downward approximately where the “L”bends. An apparatus is strapped around each leg so a climber can lift and jamb the spur into the trunk of a tree or a pole in order to establish a support to stand on. Used in conjunction with a harness and wrap around rope.
clog maker’s axe: a short handled, one handed side axe with a blade that curved slightly toward the back particularly suited to shaping wooden shoes. The handles are frequently quite bulbous to increase the balance. (also: sabot maker’s axe ... a European term)
coach axe: a light-weight, medium-length, single bit axe intended to be carried on horse drawn coaches and used to clear the road when such occasions arose. (also: house axe, quarter axe)
coach maker’s axe: a short handled, frequently rectangular bladed bearded axe usually ground on only one side similar to a chisel. The small shape allowed for paring or shaving irregular shapes rather than chopping.  (see: bearded axe)coal miner’s axe: (see: miner’s axe)
collar: a uniform extension completely around the eye to increase the inside area of the eye and to function as a reinforcement.
collie axe: a term used to describe a short-handled axe specifically adapted for use in mines.
collier: 1. a coal miner.
    2. a ship for carrying coal.
        3. a person who makes charcoal from wood who tended the charcoal pits.
colliery: a coal mine and the accompanying buildings and equipment.
combination pattern axe: offered in some catalogs as a special order, these double bit axes had different patterns forged on either side of the eye.
company: (Co.) 1. a group of people associated for the purpose of forming a commercial or industrial firm.
    2. the partners whose names are not given in the title of the firm.
company store: a general store-type operation owned and run by a company that stocked the basics needed by the employees that were not provided by the employer, similar in many respects to a general store.
competition axe: (see: racing axe)
conifer: any tree that produced seeds within its cones, an evergreen tree that has needles as compared to broad leaves. Trees in this group are also called softwoods.
constructor’s axe: very heavy duty axe and maul combination, much like a splitting maul. (see: splitting maul)
cookie:  a term used to describe the end of a log that includes the stamped identification mark that has been  cut  off.  
cooper’s adz:  a short handled adz with a cupped cutting edge and (frequently) a square poll. Used for shaping staves for cooperage.
cooper’s broad axe: a smaller and lighter version of an offset broad axe used for dressing cooperage components. (also: cooper’s axe, cooper’s side axe)
copyright: (©) a guarantee of ownership and protection of originality for a document, composition, graphic, design, etc. (see: registered, patent)
corduroy road:  a road constructed of smaller diameter logs laid side by side the width of which is determined by the length of the logs.
corporation: (Corp.) a group of people who obtain a charter granting them, as a single body, the legal rights, powers, privileges, and liabilities of an individual, distinct from those of the individuals who make up the group. (infrequently: Corp’n)
counterstroke: when limbing, a stroke of the axe that travels from the top or crotch side of the branch to the bottom or root end basically parallel to the main limb or trunk.
cranked handle: a handle that has a curve as an integral part of the design. Quite often an axe handle incorporating a compound curve.
cross axe: (see: twybill)
crotch: the area of a tree where two or more branches grown out separately, usually results in the grain becoming entwined and very tough.
crown: the uppermost portion of a tree, frequently referring to the whole system of branches.
Crown Axe: a term used around the end of the 18th century and into the early 19th century to describe an axe similar in overall shape to that associated with English axes; long, wide blade with a relatively small flaring poll.
cruiser: one who estimates the potential lumber yield from the standing timber on a specific tract of land and may mark out routes for accessing the area. (also: estimator)
cruiser’s axe: a small version of a double bit axe  designed to make markings by slashing the bark such as when blazing. (also: timber cruiser’s axe)
cull: v. the removal of certain trees usually because they are inferior, unmerchantable or otherwise undesirable.
         1. n. the term used when referring to material that has been culled.
         2. n. a tree or log which is considered unmerchantable because of defects.
cupping axe: a double-beveled axe similar to a broad axe with either a straight or curved cutting edge measuring 10 to 13 inches used to make diagonal cuts or grooves for the channeling of resin or gum collected in the turpentining process. (also: apron axe, turpentine axe)
cutter mattock: a mattock with a adze type hoe end and a short axe type end. (see: mattock)
cutter’s stamp: a mark representing or identifying the individual that either felled the tree or cut the tree into manageable or transportable lengths.
“D” handle: a saw handle with a cutout section resulting in an internal opening to accommodate the user’s hand.
d.b.: double bit, double-bitted. Often used in manufacturer’s and trade catalogs and on order forms and invoices. (also: D.B.)
decal: the common term used to refer to decalcomania. (see: decalcomania, trade label)
decalcomania:  1. a label or stick-on form of identification used to identify various tools and other products.
    2. pictures, designs and/or other printing material printed on a thin, cellophane-like, specially treated paper used for labels and other markings that are adhered to smooth surfaces. Often referred to as a "trade label" in Great Britain.
deciduous: trees that have leaves described as broad which are shed each year. Trees in this group are also called hardwoods.
debark: the process of removing bark from trees or logs.
deck: a stack of trees or logs and the area in which they are temporarily stored when being readied for transport.
deer  foot: (see: end knob, fawn foot)
delimbing: (also: limbing) cutting branches off felled trees.
demolition axe: a term used to take the place of “fire axe.”
device: 1. a mechanical invention or contrivance used for a specific purpose.
    2. an ornamental figure or design often with a motto, on a coat of arms.
die stamp: a marking device that when struck while in contact with another surface will leave a permanent mark in the form of the design processed into the face of the die.
distributor: a firm that purchases goods at wholesale frequently in unbroken packaged units and resells them in smaller (broken packages) quantities to retail sales establishments. (note: items from broken packages often incurred a price premium.)
dock builder’s axe: a heavy single bit axe having a poll with a laid on steel surface making it suitable for driving spikes.
dog: 1. a short, heavy piece of steel with one end wedge-pointed and the other with an offset ring that when driven into a log can be used to attach a chain or rope.
    2. a heavy barb-like hook located at the end of a curved arm such as found on a cant hook that tends to dig in when pressure is applied.
dog driver:  (driver) a logger who drives or pounds log dogs and grabs into the ends of logs so they can be hooked up with other logs or otherwise secured together with chains, cables or ropes.
dog skipper: (skipper) a logger who knocks out or removes log dogs and grabs from logs so the logs can be maneuvered individually.
dogging axe: 1.a term sometimes used to describe an axe with a hammer poll used for driving log dogs.
    2. an alternative name for a “killing axe” or an axe with a  hammer poll. (see: hammer poll axe)
double bit axe: an axe with a cutting edge at both ends of the head. Numerous patterns were made varying in weight, from short to quite long and wide to quite narrow depending on the primary intended use. (also: double bit, double-bitted)
double struck: the result of a marking stamp that had been applied twice to the same area, usually resulting in an irregular image.
double wedged: the use of a wood wedge installed along the long axis of the eye after which one or more metal wedges are installed diagonally across the wood wedge.
driver: (see: dog driver)
driven: a term used when referring to an axe that has had the handle installed, presumedly with the assistance of a machine.
drop: to cut down a tree usually in a controlled fashion in respect to where it will land.
drop forge: the process or pounding or shaping heated metal between dies with a drop hammer or press.
drop forged: made by a mechanically operated hammer striking and forming the blank, considered to be more economical but provides less control.
drop hammer: A mechanically operated heavy hammer consisting of an anvil (base) aligned with a heavy hammer which is raised and then dropped on the heated metal. The metal being worked is located against an anvil and the hammer drops at a predetermined interval. Used to forge metal positioned on the anvil by the forger. (Predates the spring hammer.)
duck bill shovel: (see: muckscoop)
duff: accumulated decaying leaves, small branches and other detritus covering a forest floor.
Dutch trade axe: an early  type of trade axe similar to the English and French trade axes that included a round eye and no poll. Term influenced by maker and location where found.
ebonite finish: a term used by some manufacturers to describe a black finish with a dull sheen.
edge tools: usually refers to a variety of tools which have cutting edges that have been formed by forging; may include chisels, gouges, knives, drawknives, plane irons and some spokeshave cutters. Commonly includes hatchets, axes and agricultural implements. Manufacturers may or may not have provided handles, bodies, hafts, etc.
electro-etched: the process of marking metal by use of an electrical arc that can be moved around the surface in simple to complex patterns. (see: etched)
electrotype: a facsimile printing plate made by electroplating a wax impression of an engraving with a thin layer of copper that is then backed with type metal. Electrotypes were used to produce many images in catalogs.
emblem: (formerly, a picture with a motto)
    1. a visible symbol of a thing, an idea, a group or a class of people, etc.; an object or representation that stands for or suggests something else.
    2.  a sign, badge or device.
emboss: to decorate with a design or pattern that is raised above the surrounding surface. Usually achieved in metal by depressing the lower surfaces either mechanically or chemically by means of material removal. Frequently incorrectly used to describe an axe design that was etched. (See: etched)
embossed mark:  a design or marking that is raised above the immediately surrounding surface; a design that is in relief with the background depressed. Embossed axe markings were actually etchings that resulted in layers processed to different depths. Frequently incorrectly used to describe an axe design that was etched.
embryo axe: 1. the hot mass of metal in an unworked state ready to be formed with a hammer.
    2. the early or undeveloped stage of an axe head without a formed poll and /or eye.
end knob: the enlarged portion of the end of an axe handle that decreases the possibility of the handle slipping through the chopper’s hands. (also: swell knob, deer foot, fawn foot, or said to be caulked)
English trade axe: term applied to early trade axes supplied by the English in the Hudson Bay and certain other regions. (also: Hudson Bay trade axe)
engraved mark: a design that has been cut by controlled scratching or gouging with a tool harder than the the surface being worked on.
etched: traditionally a process involving the use of acid and a masking material such as asphaltum; used to create a mark on a metal object (such as a blade). This technique permitted considerable detail. (see: acid etched and electro- etched)
etched marking: the logo or other identifying mark applied to a piece of steel with acid that has been applied to unprotected areas of the metal.
European pattern broad axe: a large single-handed broad axe with the blade extending in both directions from the socketed eye section. Frequently with a blade that is longer than American made broad axes, these axes were asymmetrical and were made in both left and right hand styles. These axes are often referred to as a “goose wing axe” which is a contemporary term not used when such axes were actually made.  (see: goose wing axe)
eye: the hole or opening in the head of an axe or other striking tool into which the handle is secured.
eye hoe: (see: grub hoe)
eye mandrel: (see: eye-pin)
eye pin: a piece of steel around which the eye of an axe was formed when fabrication involved wrap-around forging. (also: eye plug, eye mandrel, slug)
eye plug: (see: eye-pin)
eye spike: a boom dog with a fixed eye or a movable eye at one end. (see: boom dog)
exporter: one who arranges for goods to be sent to another country for sale and/or distribution.
face:  the flat portions of an axe head on the outside of the eye, located above the cheeks. Sometimes referred to as the cheeks. Frequently the location for etchings, stampings or labels.
    2. sometimes the relatively flat surface of a tool that makes contact with the material being worked.
facing cut: the first cuts made in a tree trunk when starting to fell the tree. The facing cut is located on the side in which the tree will fall. It should be between about a third or a bit more the diameter of the tree. The facing cuts, or notch, can be cut with an axe or saw. (see: notch)
factory brand:  a term used to indicate that the name applied to a product by the actual manufacturer has been publicized to assist the buyer by associating the brand with the true maker. (see: manufacturer’s trade name)
faller: a person who cuts down or fells trees. Traditionally a person who cuts down trees with hand tools, either an axe or with a cross-cut saw. (also: feller, tree faller, timber faller)
falling axe: the term apparently preferred in the Pacific Northwest areas of North America for axes with long handles and a long, narrow head primarily designed for the chopping down or dropping of large trees. (see: felling axe)
falling wedge: a metal wedge inserted into a saw kerf to prevent the saw from binding and or to assist the direction in which the tree will fall.
feller: (same as faller) a person who fells or cuts down trees. (also: tree faller, timber faller)
family axe: (see: house axe)
farm axe: a term used for a brush axe or brush hook.
fawn foot: the end of an axe and/or hatchet handle shaped in a form representative of a deer’s foot. (also: fawn paw, deer  foot, end knob, swell knob)
fawn paw: (see: fawn foot)
fell: to cut down a tree. (also: to fall a tree)
feller: one who cuts down trees. (also: faller)
felling: 1. cutting down a tree frequently associated with the use of an axe by chopping across the grain but also applicable to cutting down a tree with a saw (cross cut saw or chain saw)
        2. completely cutting a tree down as close to the ground as practical.
felling axe: 1. originally a single bit axe with a straight handle with a head design that was particularly effective when chopping down trees. As double bit axes became more common many were designed to be advantageous as felling axes although many had one bit sharpened in such a way that it was more efficient for removing limbs.
    2. the preferred term in England and Europe and originally in North America for an axe designed specifically to cut down or chop down large trees. The head is longer and narrower than a conventional double bit axe. Some felling axes were long single bit axes. (also: falling axe)
ferrule: a metal ring or cap placed around the end of a handle or other shaft to prevent splitting or provide reinforcement.
finish: the treatment applied to or used on the final product to enhance the appearance and/or protect the surface.
Finn Hoe:  (see: muckscoop)
fire axe: 1. a general term used to describe a variety of axes used to fight fires some of which were not specifically designed or adapted for the purpose.
     2. an axe with a conventional axe blade on one end and a short thick pick or spike used for broaching or prying.
         3. a single bit axe with a wide, heavy poll designed for breaking locks and delivering concentrated strikes.
    (2 also called a pick head fire axe. 2 & 3 also called: firemen’s axe, fire fighter’s axe)
fire rake: (also called a Rhino Tool) a rake-like implement usually with four heavy-duty replaceable teeth. The teeth can be re-sharpened and then replaced. The sharp teeth can be used to hack through vegetation prior to raking it away.
first quality: goods that are considered to be the best they can be in regard to materials and finish in accordance with the manufacturer’s standards.
flame hardened: a process by which hardwood handles are seared or scorched with an open flame to remove the raised grain or fuzz created in the abrasive processing stages. The surface takes on a slightly burnt appearance and the surface becomes a bit hardened from drying.
flash: a device, insignia or other graphic image representative of a group or subgroup. (frequently used in reference to military groups) (also: patch)
fluted axe:  a term improperly used during the late 1800s and early 1900s for an axe that has a raised ridge along the center of each face. The ridges arc toward the corners forming an inverted “Y”. The term “ridge” would be more appropriate.  (Note; traditionally the term refers to a prehistoric stone axe with a grove or flute processed around the axe so the head can be secured to a handle.)
foot adze: another name for a carpenter’s adze supposedly because it was swung between the feet.
forester’s axe: another term used to refer to a double bit blazer’s axe.
forester’s fire axe:  (see Pulaski)
forge: 1. a furnace used to heat metal that will be wrought or hammered into shape.
        2. an area in which pieces of metal are heated to a malleable state and then shaped by striking with a heavy hammer or drop hammer against an anvil or into a pre-shaped form.
forged: metal that has been shaped by heating and striking.
forge weld: the process of physically attaching two pieces of metal by repeated hammering while the metal is extremely hot thus causing a fusing of the adjoining surfaces.
forging: the processing of shaping hot metal by striking. (also: forge)
foundry:  the general area in which casting is done including the making of the mold, melting the metal and pouring it into the mold.
franchised brand: the name of a product owned by one party (commonly the maker) and leased to a seller or end user under an agreement that provides certain exclusive advantages to the seller while preventing unauthorized use by others.
freighter’s axe: a single bit axe with a heavy head and short (27”-28”) handle used by freight handlers.
French trade axe:  short bit, poll-less trade axe with a round eye supplied by the French. (also: Biscayan trade axe)
friskett: 1. a stencil-like pattern used for transferring an etching pattern to a piece of metal such as when an axe head is being etched. The material used permits the transference of an acid resisting wax to the  surface so the acid will not “eat” into the metal in specific areas.
           2. any material that protects areas of a work piece from being changed as a result of other processing.
gap (gapping): to break a piece of metal out of the edge of an axe; a nick or section of an axe edge that has been broken out; usually V-shaped, thereby rendering the axe useless. The damage is usually caused by striking a hidden knot or piece of hard foreign material that has been encased in the tree, rather than being caused by improper use.
gas tempered: the heat for tempering is obtained from natural gas as compared to coal.
glut: a short length of wood or hefty  branch tapered to a narrow edge on one end and used as a splitting wedge.
German square eye: a somewhat unique eye design where the top and sides of the eye form a box and the bottom edge is curved outward.
Girl Scout axe: (see: scout axe)
go devil:  a heavy duty adze with a large poll used for rough work such as required when setting railroad ties. (also: railroad adze, hack devil)
goose-wing axe: usually a large hewing axe with a head that is shaped in such a way as to suggest the wing of a goose. The rather short handles were usually canted (bent outward) and fitted into a socket rather than an eye. The style is said to have evolved from similar European shaped axes but the name was introduced in America, probably by collectors, some time after the axes were actually being made. The name is a relatively contemporary term not used by the original makers. (see: European pattern broad axe)
grab: a curved hook made of heavy steel with a ring at one end and a barbed dog at the other. The dog was driven into a log and used to provide an attachment point for chains, cables or rope. (see: dog, skidding tongs)
grab maul: a tapered round handle, approximately 34” long with a heavy steel sleeve around one end that is used for driving log dogs. Some versions have a spike in the tip so the maul can be jammed into a log so it remained upright. That made it easier to relocate.
grab skipper: an axe-like tool with a short, heavy pointed pick extending from the top half of the poll, used for extracting as well as driving logging dogs.
grooved axe: an uncommon form of axe head where fundamentally parallel grooves are forged into the sides of the axe from above the bit steel toward the pole. Supposedly to assist in discharging the chip, especially on sappy or resinous wood.
grubber: an alternative design of a blade that can be used with a contemporary hoedad bracket and handle. The blade is curved and sharpened for use in cutting small roots and vegetation when clearing fire lanes and the like.  The grubber is primarily a duff clearing tool but it can also be used like a hoe to pull soil around.
grubbing: the process of using a grub hoe, the horizontal blade of a Pulaski or a similar tool to remove materials such as small roots, saplings and brush by chopping flush with or just below the surface of the ground.  
grub hoe: a heavy duty, wide bladed hoe usually with a circular rather than an elongated eye. The cutting edge is perpendicular to the handle so when swung downward it can be used to shear roots and small stumps. Used for uprooting plants and sod. (also: hazel hoe)
grub hoe: a heavy duty, wide bladed hoe usually with a circular rather than an elongated eye. The cutting edge is perpendicular to the handle so when swung downward it can be used to shear roots, small stumps and for clearing away ground cover and debris. Used for uprooting plants and sod.  (also: hazel hoe or an eye hoe)
guide mark: an identification marking permanently applied to an item that was usually made in quantity. The mark was impressed or stamped into each item in the same relative place. (see: maker’s mark. touch mark)
gun: the process of determining the line along which a large trunk will fall.
gun sticks:  a simple device consisting of a series of  strips of wood fastened in such a way as to have a scissor action. gutter adze: an adze with a curved cutter much like a gouge that will permit cutting concave depressions in the wood.
gutter man: a woodsman that removes the branches, limbs and stubs from thee trunk (log) after it has been felled.
When the  “handle bars” and the gunning mark are at 90 degrees the direction of the fall can be determined. (also: woods transit)
gypo: a  member of a gypo logging crew.
gypo crew: a small group (4 to 8) of independent loggers who work together as a group that does contract work as compared to wages from a big company. The group usually moves from one work site to another.
hacker: one who hews cross-ties.
hack devil: a term used to describe a railroad adze with a large,  blunt poll. (also: railroad adze, go devil)
half axe: (see: camp axe)
haft: another name for a wooden handle, frequently used to refer to the handle of an axe, hammer or hatchet. (also: handle, helve)
halve: n: (old spelling) the wooden handle of a tool; especially for an axe or hatchet. (see: helve)
    v. to add or replace a wood handle on a tool.
hammer poll axe: a single bit axe with an extended hammer poll intended for driving wedges, bolts, etc. (also: pole axe, slaughtering axe, killing axe, dogging axe)
hammer weld: the fusing or forging together of the surfaces of metal  by heavy hammering when the metal was red hot or hotter.
hand adze: a single-handed adze that has the blade secured to a short, usually slightly curved handle by means of a metal collar and wedge. Some handles are enclosed. (also: called a stirrup adze and a Connecticut hand adze)
hand axe: another term used for a hatchet or short handled axe that could be used with one hand.
hand forged: made by hand hammering and shaping as compared to being drop-forged.
hand-sappie: a short-handled pickaroon-style tool with a spike formed in the shape of a shallow “S” which is used for hooking and dragging small logs or debris.
handle: the portion of an item, such as a tool or implement that is used to grip, hold, lift, turn, pull, etc. the item. (also: haft, helve)
handled: axes that are furnished with the handle already installed.
handle shield: a metal or rubber fitting placed around the handle directly next to the head to reduce the damage caused by improper strikes. (also: handle guard, handle saver)
handspike: woodsman’s tool used to free hung up or trapped logs in a log jam.
hand split: wood that has been torn or pried apart along the grain thereby not splitting through the annual rings resulting in the end product having more initial flexibility and less tendency to break upon impact. (also: hand riven)
hang: 1.  the relative position of the handle in reference to position that the head is installed in a striking tool, especially ax axe. The alignment of the head and handle.
    2. a term used to describe the process of installing a handle in an axe, hammer or other tool that has an eye.
hang up: a dangerous situation where a tree is lodged in another tree and is prevented from falling to the ground.
hard hitting competition: an event in which an axeman, using an axe blade not above a specified weight, cuts through a log, underhand, in the smallest number of blows possible. As distinct from all other forms of wood chopping competition, the axemen compete one at a time.
hardware: metal goods and utensils such as locks, tools, implements, cutlery and cooking utensils. Also includes mechanical devices such as latches, hooks, fasteners and the like that are made primarily of metal.
hatchet: a small, one handed axe-like cutting tool usually consisting of a metal head with a cutting edge on one end and in some cases a hammer-like face on the other.
hazel hoe: a wide single-bladed tool usually over 4 inches wide used to cut through layers of surface roots and tight, interwoven root mats. They are similar to the hoe end of a Pulaski but considerably wider. (also: grub hoe, eye hoe)
hdw., hdwe.: abbreviations for “hardware” frequently used to write the name of a company so it uses less space.
head: the contact portion of a striking tool with some provision included to permit it to be affixed to a handle.
heat treatment: the process of hardening and tempering of metal.
heath mattock: a striking tool that has one end formed as a heavy hoe and the other end formed in the shape of a somewhat elongated triangle. The triangle has a thick center rib and sharpened sides. (also: Andy hoe)
heel: the lower corner of the cutting edge on an axe blade, closest to the user.
helve: the handle of a tool especially when referring to that for an axe or hatchet. (also: haft, halve, handle)
hew: to flatten or otherwise shape by using an axe or other edge tool.
hewing axe: an axe with a cutting edge that is considerably longer than a chopping or felling axe and used for flattening and squaring timber. (see: broad axe, squaring axe, side axe)
hickory: the wood of choice for most axe and hatchet handles made and used in North America. (see: blue gum, second growth)
high climber: a person that works at the top of a tree to remove the upper section or position and fasten pulleys, block or other mechanical devices. (also: topper, top man)
hinge: the material between the notch and the back cut that will split as the tree begins to topple.
hoedad: a tree planting tool comparable to a long, narrow adze with a 12’’ to 17” long blade and an adze-style handle. Used by embedding the blade into the ground and then lifting the handle to create a hole suitable for planting seedlings. Older versions were forged, newer versions include a carbon-alloy steel blade either straight or slightly curved. [Note: the term hoedad also applied a person who was a member of a group that planted seedings.]
hoe-shovel: (also called a Rhino Tool) a heavy duty tool with a curved blade shaped like the upper portion of a shovel blade with a reinforced top edge. The tool is affixed to a handle like a regular hoe blade but  can also be used for digging as well as scraping. The handle is usually approximately 38 inches long.
Holtz Axe: (Holtzaxe) a very heavy, flat-sided, wedged shaped, comparatively dull axe used for splitting only. (also: splitting axe, wedge axe, sledge axe)
hookaroon: a metal hook with the shank  inserted into the end of a wood handle with a reinforcing ferrule, used for snagging and/or turning over logs. (see: pickaroon)
horned handle: a handle with the outer corners protruding in a horn shape to reduce the tendency of the users hand slipping off.
hot stamped: a term used to indicate when or how a metal object (such as a blade) was marked with a maker’s stamp. The operation of impressing the maker’s stamp into the metal when it was still hot and malleable usually resulting in a deep, well defined marking.
house adze: (see carpenter’s adze)
house axe: a relatively small axe or large hatchet designated for use in or around the house, for splitting kindling and other light chopping or splitting activities. (also: family axe, quarter axe)
house brand: a brand used by and associated with a specific wholesaler or distributor.
Hudson Bay axe: a distinctive style of axe head initially introduced as a trade axe in the Hudson Bay area of Canada. (also: French trade axe, English trade axe)
Humboldt notch cut: One of the two major types of notches cut into the tree face that are commonly used when falling a tree. The angled cut required to form the face notch is removed from below the horizontal cut on on the the stump of the tree.
hunter’s axe: a short handled axe with a somewhat heavier poll good for pounding stakes, etc. (also: hunter’s  hatchet, sportsman’s axe)
ice adze: a long handled adze with teeth ground in the lead edge and beveled on the top, used for flattening blocks of ice or otherwise flattening the surface of ice.
ice axe: an axe with a long, narrow blade with a curved edge used for breaking through ice;  sometimes with a short hook on the opposite end.
ice hatchet: a hatchet with a narrow blade, sometimes with heavy teeth, and opposing spike forged at a sharp angle to one another.
imported: goods that have been made in another country and brought into the receiving country for the purposes of sales. The term was frequently used to indicate the availability of goods manufactured abroad thus widening the scope of available merchandise.  
impressed mark: a mark that has been pushed into a surface using a considerable degree of pressure compared to being applied by being struck.
incised mark:  a design or marking that has been cut, carved, or engraved; a design or symbol made by cutting into the material.
incused mark:  a design or marking that has been stamped, pressed, or hammered into a surface; made by depressing the material
inlaid bit: the harder steel that was inserted between the overlapping sides of the axe head prior to forge welding the two pieces together. The softer, outer  metal protects the harder bit more efficiently.
iron: a malleable, ductile, metallic element obtained from iron ore and used as the basis of steel.
    bog iron: iron obtained from ore that has accumulated near the surface of bogs and in other marshy areas.
    cast iron: fundamentally unrefined iron with a high carbon content as it is obtained from a blast furnace, resulting in  
         a brittle metal suitable for subsequent melting and then pouring into all kinds of forms.
    charcoal iron: the result of smelting the ore with charcoal thus producing a high quality iron suitable for forging and
         welding. Prevalent in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
    Norway iron: high quality iron obtained from Norway during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and used in
         the manufacture of more highly refined goods.
    pig iron: iron as it is drawn from the smelting pot; brittle and requiring further processing and refinement before
         becoming usable. Named for the crude forms in which it was originally formed.
    Russian iron: a high quality iron imported from Russia during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
    wrought iron: a low carbon, malleable iron suitable for forging and welding.
ironmonger: a person or firm that sells iron and hardware either retail of wholesale. (British term for hardware dealer or merchant.)
iron burner: a slang term used  to refer to a logging-camp blacksmith
jobber: one who buys goods in quantity from manufacturers or importers and sells to retail dealers or other commercial accounts; a wholesaler; a middleman. (older term for small wholesaler)
jumping: (jumped) the process of butt joining one piece of metal to another by hammer welding such as when replacing the bit on an axe. (also: re-steeling, re-steeled)
label: 1. a card, piece of paper, cloth or metal marked and attached to an object to indicate its nature, content, ownership, destination, price, etc.
    2. an identifying brand of a company.
ladies axe: an axe that is quite similar to a number of others axes but made in a lighter weight and somewhat shorter handle.
langet:  flanges or extensions of the sides of a striking tool at the bottom of the eye for the purpose of strengthening the eye.
lean: the direction of the tilt of a tree away from its vertical position.
leaner:  the name given to  a tree that is not upright but has grown in a specific direction when seeking light or been tilted due to an act of nature.    
Lehigh fire: a term used to describe fires that utilize anthracite coal. (Lehigh, Pennsylvania is believed to have been the earliest source of such coal) Such fires were considered the best means of achieving the hottest forging fires used by some axe manufactures in early 1800s.
letterhead: a printed design used at the top of a letter indicating the name and location of the subject, often with decorative graphics, logos and/or other embellishments.
lifting hook: a term more popular in some European countries for a pickaroon. Frequently heavier than a common pickaroon. (see: pickaroon, hookaroon)
ligulated head: a method of attaching or reinforcing the head of a striking tool to the handle with straps (usually metal) The straps are part of or otherwise attached to the head, extend along the sides of the handle and are riveted through the handle. (also: strapped head)
limber: one who cuts the limbs from trees that have been felled.
limbing:  the removal of the limbs and heavy branches from felled trees.  (also: chasing, delimbing)
limited: (Ltd.) (chiefly British) a legal organizational arrangement restricting the liability of each partner or shareholder to the amount of his actual investment in the business.
limited partnership: (LP) substantially the same as “limited”.
lipped adze: fundamentally an adze with the sides slightly bent up to help prevent the cutting corners from cutting too deep while splitting the material being lifted resulting in a more controlled cut. (also: lipped carpenter’s adze)
lip extensions: a term used by Henry C. Mercer to describe the lugs on an axe head. (see: lugs)
log: (log wood) tree trunks and large branches that have been felled, had the limbs removed with the intention of processing them into timbers, lumber and/or veneers.
log boom: a barrier comprised of logs or series of logs grouped and temporarily fastened together to contain or hold floating logs together so they can be combined into a raft or systematically sorted.
log dog: 1. a heavy staple-like holding device made of forged metal with tapered ends bent at right angles to the main shaft. They are driven into logs to hold them from shifting while one or more of the logs is being scribed, squared notched or otherwise worked on.
    2.  (less frequent use) a heavy staple-like fastener temporarily driven into the ends of two adjacent logs to hold them together such as when rafting.    
log driver: a logger that works on logs floating in water such as a lake, pond or even a river. The job involves moving logs, preventing log jams or freeing up jams. (also: river monkey)
logging style: the general overall guidelines for how a tract of land will be logged.
    clear cutting: cutting all of the standing trees without regard to leaving anything for natural reforestation. The
    unwanted slash is left on the site.
    cut-to-length logging: the felling, delimbing and bucking of trees to the desired length and then leaving all the debris
    where it falls.
    full-tree logging: trees are felled and relocated to an area where they are delimbed and cut to length. The cutoffs  
    and debris are chipped or otherwise treated and where possible used for other applications. This method removes all
    the nutrients from the site thereby limiting or preventing reforestation.
    selective logging: felling only those trees that meet specific requirements such as minimum diameter and height of
    the species desired while causing the minimum amount of damage.  The site is left in a reasonably cleaned up
     condition .
    slash:logging;  leaving all the waste  at the logging site and only removing the profit generating logs.
    tree-length logging: only logs of a minimum or larger desired diameter and length are removed from the site leaving
     the slash to be treated to reduce fire hazards and other potential problems.
logo: (shortened version of older word logotype) a distinctive set of letters, words or images representative of a brand, trademark or company.
lopping axe: a relatively lightweight single bit axe used to remove or lop off branches from a felled log. (also: chopping axe)
lugs: triangular extensions of the head on both sides of the eye supposedly to function as a reinforcement. (sometimes referred to as a lips)(see: langet )
lumber jack: a logger who physically works in some capacity of harvesting or moving logs to the mill.
keen edge (end): a sharp edge or end; especially on one end of a double bit axe that was sharpened on a more acute angle as compared to the “stunt” end which was used for rougher chopping. (see: stunt edge)
Kelly: Australian slang timber worker’s term for the standard Australian hardwood axe; taken from an American axe manufacturer’s company name.  American made axes were introduced to the Australian market in the early 1900s. Once accepted, they swamped the Australian market. The term was eventually used generically and was the only manufacturer’s name to have been adapted as such  by  the Australian timber fellers.
Kentucky Axe: 1. a pattern of axe that was developed in the beginning of the 19th century that was heavier than previously common.
    2. a general style of axe with a poll that is heavier than most other types of chopping axe.
kerf: the space formed by a saw cut.
killing axe: (see: poll axe, also: stunning axe)
knot bumper: one who cuts off knots and limbs from felled trees (also: limber)
maker: 1. a term intended to apply to an individual working alone or together with a very limited number of employees who fabricate items by the piece or in limited numbers and fundamentally one at a time.
    2. a general term used in lieu of the term manufacturer to refer to either an individual or company that actually made the products or items in question in a repetitive manner and in significant quantities.
maker’s mark: a mark applied by any number of methods that results in a permanent indicator identifying the maker or manufacturer. (see: guide mark, touch mark)
manufactory:  a building or buildings in which things are manufactured; a manufacturing plant. (Older usage; now more commonly referred to as a factory)
manufacturer: (mfr.) a company or concern that actually produces items in volume and supplies such items to others for sales and distribution.
manufacturer’s agent: an independent sales agent, not employed by a manufacturer, who sells the goods made by a manufacturer; often representing a number of companies with similar or complementary products.
manufacturer’s trade label:  a label provided and applied to a product with name of the product and either the name of the manufacturer and/or the name of an authorized distributor. (note: labels indicating a distributor were often placed on items with the same name that looked very similar to the labels used by another distributor.)
manufacturer’s trade name: a name or brand given to a product or line of products made by a specific manufacturer. Often such names are copyrighted or registered and cannot legally be used without the manufacturer’s permission. Some manufacturer’s trade names become associated with a newly introduced product and supersede the actual generic name of such a product.
manufactured: objects that are produced in quantity by repetitive operations usually involving more machine processing than hand processing. May involve the separation of labor; different steps done by different people.
marking: a design, symbol or wording used by a maker to identify a product.
marking hammer: a heavy hammer with a raised symbol or letters on the striking surface and used to impress the marking into the end grain of a cut tree. (see: marking axe, signet hammer, signet axe, stamping axe)
marking axe: a single bit axe with raised letters, numerals or other characters on the poll. Used to impress the mark into the ends of logs for identification purposes. (also: stamping axe)
mast axe: similar to a broad axe but with a straight handle preferred for shaping masts, spars and other similar large round maritime related components.
mat-axe: a term used by some manufacturers to describe a combination axe and mattock otherwise known as a Pulaski.
mattock: a striking tool that has one end formed as heavy duty adze and the other end as a pick (pick mattock) or short axe (cutter mattock). The “adze” end is formed like a short, heavy, sharpened hoe and the blade is perpendicular to that of the common axe.
mauling axe: a heavy-headed single bit axe with an oversized  hardened poll used for splitting and driving wedges and spikes.
McLeod: (also: McLeod Tool) the tooth side is used for removing debris and accumulated vegetation and the back hoe-like edge which is sharpened is used to cut light roots and vines so they can be raked away.
miner’s axe: a single bit axe with a three-quarter length handle used for shaping and notching timbers within a confined area such as a mine. (also: three-quarter axe, coal miner’s axe, collie axe)
miner’s muckscoop:(see: muckscoop)
mortise axe: a long single bit axe with a narrow head suited for shaping and cutting into a pocket or depression. (also: mortising axe, post hole axe, post axe)
mortising axe: (see: mortise axe)
motto: a word, or phrase used to express the goals, principals or ideals of a group such as a wholesaler. (see: slogan)
muckscoop: a heavy duty scraping and scooping tool used for clearing, mining and  construction work with a 32” +- handle. The L-shaped steel head is bolted to the handle and is used to move small rock, gravel and  rubble and for scraping grasses and duff. (Also called: miner’s muckscoop, duck bill shovel, slide shovel, Finn hoe and Swede hoe.)
Muley Pattern: an alternative name used in the mid 1800s for a “Michigan Pattern” axe
narrow axe: a general term used as a comparison between a broad axe and the more common axes used for chopping. Narrow styles were available in many more styles than the broad axe and were much more common.
national brand: the name of a product or line of products that is known and frequently advertised throughout the country (as compared to wholesale brands). Usually a manufacturer’s brand.
noodles: a term used in some places to describe the shavings produced and then removed by the saw teeth when using a buck or cross-cut saw.
nose: to round off or bevel the lead edge of a log so it can be dragged or skidded with less tendency to get hung up. (also: snipe)
notch: the wedge shaped area that is chopped or sawn out on the side of a tree in which direction it will fall. (also: box, undercut, facing cut, scarf)
notching: removing a section of the tree trunk on the side that the tree is intended to fall  so the tree will lean in that direction. The removed area may be  triangular if done completely with an axe. The back cut can then be made with a buck saw or by chopping so the back of the cut or apex of the edge shaped back notch is slightly above that of the face notch or face cut.
offset handle:  a handle that is bent in such a way as to permit the axe to be used close to a vertical surface and still leave clearance for the chopper’s hands.
open hearth iron: iron produced by the open hearth method thereby resulting in large quantities with more quality control and more uniform material.
overcoat bit: (see: overlaid bit)
overlaid bit: the harder steel that makes up the cutting edge portion of an axe when forge welded on  as a “V” shaped piece of metal resulting in the bulk of the harder metal being on the outside of the head; more susceptible to damage. (also: overcoat bit)
over-stamp: the process of stamping one maker’s name directly on top of the original maker’s name. Sometimes done to indicate a change in business ownership.
over struck: when one marking stamp is aligned on top of another marking stamp, especially when the stamps are different.
packing house axe: name determined by intended use. (see: butchering axe, pole axe)
parbuckle: a method or device for raising or lowering a relatively round object (such as a log) requiring a doubled-over rope or cable, the midpoint of which is secured above or to the side of the object to be moved and the the two rope lengths passed around the object so that it will move up or down down (or sideways) as the ends are pulled in or let out. Moving to the side can only be done in one direction by pulling.
partial mark: a contemporary term used to describe an incomplete stamped or etched mark applied to a tool. Such marks may have some of the details discernible while others are weak or missing. (see: strong mark, weak  mark)
pattern: 1. the finished shape of an axe head that along with the weight, determines the final description of the head. (ex: 4 1/2 Rockaway axe)
    2. the early form of an axe head after it has been hammered out, had the section that was to become the eye sized to its rough thickness and before it was folded over and hammer welded.
    3. a term commonly used in the 18th and early 19th centuries to describe the section of metal cut from the main raw stock from which one axe head would be forged.  
peavey: a heavy-duty wooden handle with a strong steel spike in the end and a movable steel hook attached to the collar just above the spike. Used to grab and roll logs by applying leverage. (see: cant hook)
peeler: (see: peeling axe)
peeling axe: 1. an axe with a wide cutting edge designed for removing smaller branches and bark. (also: peeler)
          2. an axe used primarily for removing the bark from logs or for splitting the bark before it is removed.
peeling iron: a long chisel-like prying tool, with a curved end usually fitted to a wood handle and used to remove bark from a log before it is sawn of to harvest the bark for other purposes. (also: bark spud)
perfect eye: the eye or socket through the axe head is elliptical in shape with both ends rounded uniformly thus permitting a handle to be fitted to a double bit axe so both ends are uniform.
Perfect Pattern axe: designed for falling Pacific Coast timber, used by fallers, correctly  shaped and ground for felling large diameter heavy timber, insuring easy, rapid work. The eye is “perfect”, so the axe will hang just right; advertised to have been made with the highest grade crucible steel, properly tempered and ground.
phantom bevels: depressions or relieved areas ground above the cutting edge and extending in toward the center line of the axe head for the purposes of reducing binding and helping to discharge the chips.
pick: a striking tool that has one or both ends that are elongated and end in points. (see: pick axe)
pickax: (pickaxe)  a pick with one pointed end and a chisel-like end on the other.
pickaroon: (also: pickeroon) a slightly curved metal hook forged with an eye similar to an axe but with an extended spike instead of a cutting edge, used for snagging and/or turning over logs. (see: hookaroon) (sometimes spelled pisaroon.)
pick mattock: a mattock with one end formed as an adze or short heavy hoe and the other as a pick. (see: mattock)
pike: pike-pole; a long pole with a spike or spike and hook at one end, used to maneuver and guide floating logs. (Often pronounced “pick” pole)
pinned: the securing of an axe head to the handle by installing a metal pin through a hole in the head and handle. Necessary for some axes especially when used in competition.
pitch pine axe: term used in the southeast when referring to a turpentine apron axe. (also: turpentine axe, apron axe, cupping axe)
plater: an axe making person that manipulates the drawn billets under a trip hammer in order to form thinner elongated forgings.
plaqueing: alternative term used for blazing. (possibly French in derivation)
plug: 1. the piece of material removed out of the head when the eye is punched out. (also: eye plug, slug)
          2. another term used for an eye pin.  
pocket undercutter: a “C” clamp type device with a small grooved guide wheel to support the back of a crosscut saw. The clamp can be secured to an axe handle to after the axe has bee driven into the lower portion of the log being cut. (see: undercutter)
pole axe: a heavy headed axe with an extended pole much like a hammer; in addition to chopping, used for driving wedges, spikes and heavy bolts. Also used for the slaughtering of animals. (also: bull axe, butchering axe, killing axe, packing house axe, slaughtering axe, stunning axe)
    (The term is sometimes used to describe a single bit axe with a poll tempered for striking.)
poll: usually a flat striking surface on a single bit axe or an adze, opposite the cutting edge.
    1. arched poll: slightly curved from end to end.
    2. curved poll: semicircular shape from side to side.
    3  rounded poll: slightly curved with rounded ends.
    4. spiked poll:  (also spurred) a heavy, elongated  tapered, flat ended spike used for starting holes.
pond monkey: 1. a logger that manipulated logs by working directly on them or along the sides of a millpond in such a way as to guide the logs into specific areas. 2. the operator of a small tug or boat that functioned in the same way.
post hole axe: a long single bit axe with a narrow head suited for shaping and cutting a pocket or depression to fit fence components. (also: post axe) (see: mortising axe)
"Pro-Hoe": a long handled scraping tool made from spring steel that is cup shaped and attached to an elongated ferrule type socket . Such tools are used for clearing debris, duff and matted growth from the surface of the ground when creating a fire break. Used very much like a grub hoe but lighter in weight  and with a longer handle. The side edges, along with the cupped bottom edge are sharpened and the tool can be rotated thus exposing an alternate sharp edge. The width is approximately 7 inches.
powersaw:  an alternative name used primarily in Canada when referring to early chainsaws.
"Pro-Hoe Combi Tool": similar to a "Pro-Hoe" but with a cutting edge of approximately 1 1/2 inches in width opposite the cupped edge. The narrow edge is intended for chopping thick, small roots. The overall width is approximately 5 inches.
proprietary brand: an identifying name, given to an item or line of items, that legally belongs to the a private person or company by means of patent, trademark, copyright, registration or exclusive contract to use from the legal owner of the name.
Pulaski axe: an axe with a conventional axe blade on one end and axe edge perpendicular to the handle axis on the opposite end. It was invented by and named after Edward Pulaski, ca.1911, a U.S. Forestry Service firefighter at the turn of the century. (also: Pulaski tool)
Pulaski tool: another name for a Pulaski axe.
pulp-hook: a short, steel hook with a “D” shaped handle used to manipulate pulpwood bolts. (similar to a bailing-hook)
pulp wood: logs, usually four foot in length, harvested specifically for the making of paper. Initially only softwood logs.
punch mark: a term used to describe markings, frequently with a distinguishable design, that have been stamped into a surface.
punch marked: (punch decorated) a technique used to decorate metal surfaces by means of punches or simple chisels. Sometimes depicting simple designs or combinations of simple marks to create more elaborate looking marks. Example of designs included but were not limited to: crescents, stars, crosses, flower petals, snow flakes, simple leaves and the like.
quarter axe: (see: house axe, coach axe)
quarter sawn: wood that has been cut fundamentally perpendicular to the annular rings resulting in stock that has less tendency to distort and a relatively straight grain; a preferred choice for handles. (similar to and sometimes called rift sawn.
racing axe: a single bit axe designed and made primarily for competition chopping. Contemporary regulations require that the heads be drilled and pinned through the handle to prevent accidental head fly-off. (also: speed axe)
raft: a group of logs secured together with chains or cables so they can be floated as a comparatively single unit.
rafting axe: a single bit axe with a short handle and a heavy, extended poll (sometimes with tapered corners resulting in an eight-sided poll) suitable for driving and striking and especially adapted for use on logging rafts. (also: booming axe, boom axe, rafting axe)
rafting dog: (see: boom dog)
rafting handle: a straight axe handle.
rail axe:  (also: railroad axe) a double beveled axe similar in size to a broad axe but with a short heavy hammer poll, readily adaptable for rough track work especially in a mine.
railroad adze: 1. a term used to describe a wide edged adze with a large, blunt poll. (also: track adze, hack devil, go devil)
    2. another name for  double bit adze.
registered: (®) the term used to indicate that the word, words or marking has been legally recorded or registered as a trademark. (see: trademark)
re-steeling: (re-steeled) the process of replacing the steel cutting bit on an axe. (also: jumping, jumped)
retail: n. the sale or articles or goods individually or in small quantities directly to the consumer.
retail brand: the name of a product or product line used to identify such items as purchased in volume by a retailer. Such items may be sold by others but they would be sold under a different name. Some manufacturers would contract to make the exact same products for more than one customer but they would use a different name.
reverse side: the side of an object such as a tool opposite what could be considered the primary or more important side, the side opposite where the major markings are located.
ridged axe: an axe head with a distinct ridge formed when the surfaces were formed with bevels that practically meet.
rigging hatchet: Originally used when building wooden oil rigs, the rigging hatchet was heavier, had a checkered face and an 18 inch long handle. The longer handle was shaped like a curved axe handle that permitted it to be used with either a “chocked” grip or full length for maximum reach and striking force. The style was adopted for use in heavy construction. (also: Rigster hatchet, rigger’s hatchet.)
Rigster hatchet: (slang) a term used by some tradesmen when referring to a rig builders hatchet. (see: rigging hatchet)
river driver: (driver) a logger that works at freeing up log jambs; often works on log rafts and when logs are in the water.
river-rat: a logger that drove or manipulated logs down a river. (also: river hog, river pig)
roll die: when used for marking, a device bearing a design, lettering or combination thereof that when rolled across a surface under pressure will leave an impression.
rolled mark: an impressed marking that has been made in a surface by rolling the die across the surface thereby resulting in the maximum amount of pressure at the point of contact.
root axe: a term used to describe a mattock-like tool less massive than a common mattock. (also: rooting axe)
Roselli Axe: a specific contemporary design made by Heimo Roselli in Finland, the head is about 1.75 lbs. and is the same for the axe or hatchet. The axe has a longer handle. The head is a thin wedge shape with a bearded portion that extends under the handle which is fitted into an oval shaped eye.
s.b.: single bit, single-bitted. Often used in manufacturer’s and trade catalogs and on order forms and invoices.  (also: S.B.)
sabot maker’s axe: a short handled axe or hatchet with a bulbous handle used by the makers of wooden shoes or clogs. (see: clog maker’s axe)
saddle axe: a small version of a double bit axe suitable for carrying attached to a saddle.
safety axe: (safety hatchet) a hatchet with a metal guard hinged so that when not in the protective position it folds into the handle but can be rotated out to cover the cutting edge when desired.
sales territory: a term used to describe the geographic area within which a company readily and/or regularly sold to retailers.
salesman’s territory: an area considered in some cases to be the exclusive area within which a specific salesman had customers.
sap axe: (also: sapping axe) an axe that has grooves in both sides of the head reputedly to facilitate freeing up the axe when it is forced into a pocket of sap. (primarily Australian)
saw log: a log that is sufficient in size both length-wise and in diameter to saw into lumber.
sawyer: a person that specializes in sawing logs or lumber.
Sawyer Pattern sleeper axe: An axe specifically designed and/or adapted by a man named Sawyer for processing sleepers or railroad ties.
sawyer’s wedge: a solid metal wedge that was driven into a saw kerf to reduce binding. Such wedges were shaped like a thin axe head without an eye but frequently with a hole along one edge so they could be attached to a light chain for retrieval and carrying purposes.
scaler: a person that determines the volume, grade and species of a log.
scarf: 1. the unfinished angled portion of the blade of an embryo axe head prior to the steel bit being attached.
    2. the chopped surfaces of an undercut.
scoring axe: 1. a large single bit axe with an almost straight, wide angled cutting edge used for making a wide indentation suitable for rough layout lines.
    2. a broad axe, usually with a long handle, used to make cuts along the length and across the surface of a log that will them be flattened with an adze or turned on edge and flattened with a  hewing or broad axe.
scout axe: a term used to describe a variety of hatchets and light axes intended for use by boy and/or girl scouts and usually marked accordingly. (also: Boy Scout axe, Girl Scout axe, scout hatchet)
sculptor’s adz: a short handled adz usually with a cupped cutter on one side and a narrow, flat axe-like cutter on the other.
second growth: a term used to describe wood harvested from trees that had been planted to replace the original, virgin or first growth trees. The annual rings in second growth wood are further apart indicating faster growth.
second quality: goods that are slightly defective possibly because of a small flaw or blemish the surface or in the finish effecting the final appearance but not necessarily the performance of the product.
serrated: a surface that has shallow, uniform notches or sharp parallel grooves cut in both directions. The exposed ends of the protruding areas are usually flat. Found on some hatchet polls. (see: striated)
service mark: a symbol, logo, word(s), letter(s), etc. used by a supplier of services to distinguish his services from those of competitors. Usually registered and protected by law. (see: trademark)
ship adze: a long handled adze similar to a carpenter’s adze but with a spike (spur) protruding from the poll. The purpose of the spike was to drive nails substantially below the surface so the surface could be smoothed easier. These adzes were also made with lips. (also: ship carpenter’s adze, ship carpenter’s lipped adze)
ship carpenter’s axe: an axe head style favored by ship builders similar to a broad axe but with a longer shank thus locating the cutting edge further away from the eye. (also: Kent axe)
shoulder: the area surrounding the eye of the axe head effecting the strength and durability of the axe head.
shrub axe: another name for a bush axe or brush axe.
shrubbing tools: tools that are used by swinging to cut briars, vines, weeds, small diameter woody plants and similarly soft materials. Usually the head is hung on a full length handle 32” to 42” in length. (ex: brush hook, bush axe, ditch bank axe, farm axe)
side axe: an axe with one flat side and the opposite side sharpened with a bevel. (see: broad axe, squaring axe)
side notch: Additional side saw cuts made to prevent "barber-chair" or to facilitate sawing large trees into logs.
side-notched back cut: an intentional variation of a standard back-cut to compensate for the girth of the tree, assist the direction of fall and help control barber-chairing. This procedure is done by cutting each side prior to the final back cut and reduces the amount of holding wood remaining to be cut.
sidestroke: when limbing, a stroke of the axe that cuts approximately perpendicular to the branch very close to the base of the branch.
sighting gun: (see gunning sticks) (also: sight gun, timber compass, wood transit)  
signet-axe: a hatchet or small axe with symbols or letters on the poll used to identify a log with the owners mark by striking freshly exposed wood; usually end grain. (see: marking axe, signet hammer, signet axe, stamping axe)
signet-hammer: another name for a marking hatchet or marking hammer that is a hatchet with letters or symbols on the poll end. Used for marking trees.  (see: marking hammer)
single bit: an axe with one cutting edge.  American style single bit axes were made in scores of patterns in a variety of weights. (also: single bitted, single-bitted)    
skew back: a saw where the width of the blade gets narrower toward the toe while forming a gradual concave curve along the back edge of the blade.
skidding: the operation of sliding logs by pulling or dragging them along the ground sometimes with the front end elevated.
skidding tongs: 1. tongs used in skidding, pulling or dragging logs.
    2. a set of hooks attached to a ring by means of chain links and used for pulling logs. (also: dogs, grabs, grapples, grips, head grabs, skidding hooks)
skinning axe: a very sharp hatchet with a slightly extended pole used for field dressing game.
slasher: a heavy duty edge tool with a socket into which a handle between 14“ and 28” is attached. Used to cut heavy brush and small saplings. Primarily English in origin.
slaughtering axe: name determined by applied or intended use. (see: butchering axe, pole axe)
sledge axe: a very heavy, flat-sided, wedged shaped, comparatively dull axe with a heavy hammer type poll used for splitting and driving gluts. (also: splitting axe, wedge axe)
sleeper axe: a broad axe smaller than a regular broad axe and beveled on both sides with a full length handle primarily used for flattening the surface of railroad sleepers (ties).
sleeper cutter: a person who squares up sections of logs to be used as sleepers (British) or railroad ties using a broad axe.
slide shovel: (see: muckscoop)
slipper-foot pattern: a term used to designate a goosewing style hewing axe where the back or heel end includes a scroll shape usually in the form of a spiral shaped point suggesting a turned up slipper end. Sometimes a more complex scroll encompassing a significant portion of the back edge.  (used on coach goosewing  axes more so than any other style.)
sliver: usually a long section of wood forcibly pulled from the inner portion of a tree as the upper part of the trunk breaks off from the stump portion. This is frequently caused by locating the back cut too far above the front cut. (also: barber’s chair)
slogan: a catch phase used to advertise a product or line of products. (see: motto)
slug: 1. a pre-shaped piece of metal around which an axe blank was formed .
    2. a piece of metal forge-welded between the two bent-around ends of an axe head, possibly of harder steel for the cutting bit. (see: eye pin)
    3. another term used for a plug.
slug devil: a double-ended spike driving maul used to drive railroad spikes. (also: spike driving hammer, spike driving sledge hammer)
snag: a standing dead tree or significant section of a tree that is dead.
snedding: 1. the process of removing the shoots and buds found along the lengths of branches.
    2.  a terms used in some areas of Great Britain to describe the process of removing limbs from felled trees. (also: limbing, chasing)
sniping: chopping off the end corners of a log on an angle so the log can be skidded along the ground without digging in. (also: nosing)
sniping axe: a wide-edged rather heavy, double bit axe suitable for chamfering or trimming off the edges or nose on log ends and for making deep “V” cuts around large trees with very thick bark. (also: California reversible axe)
socket: a term used instead of “eye.” Sometimes a blind eye that does not go completely trough the eye head. (see: eye)
socketed eye: the eye of an axe that is extended like a collar on the edge of the axe that will receive the handle. (also: collared eye)
sod axe: a large headed axe similar in size to a broad axe primarily used for cutting “bricks” of grass (sod) for use as building components or sod roofing. Probably a result of use rather than manufacturer. (see: bog axe) (also: turf axe)
Spanish axe: a style of axe with a wraparound back resulting in a severely curved poll. The round handles have a flared end similar to a pick handle. The style was originally introduced as a trade axe but was later made heavier and widely distributed in Central and South America by American manufacturers.
spar tree: a tree with a very straight trunk suitable in overall length and diameter to be selected as a ship’s spar.
spar tree rigger: a man that prepares and sets the block and cable at the top of a spar tree.
speed axe: another name for a racing axe.
spile: (see: tap)
spelter: 1. zinc cast in slabs for commercial use.
    2. zinc in the form of slabs or ingots cast from the molten liquid obtained in the process of reducing zinc ores. Spelter is the most common commercial form of zinc metal. It contains trace amounts of copper and/or lead .
splitting axe: a heavy, thick axe capable of being used mostly for splitting a section of a tree with the grain of the wood as compared to cutting across the grain. The head is usually considerably thicker than what is classified as a chopping axe. The increased thickness/heavier weight permits the head to more effectively separate the sections resulting from the blow. That separation often results in the split to continue the length of the wood involved.
splitting maul: a heavy duty sledge type striking tool, combining a single bit axe with a maul. (see: constructor’s axe)
spot: the mark left when blazing. In some areas painted red to increase visibility. (also: blaze, plaque)
spout adz (adze): the term used to describe a style of adz with an elongated, flat-ended spike used to mark hole locations. (also: spike adz, spur adz)
spring board: a stout board, usually with a metal “toe” device attached to one end. The toe is jammed into a notch chopped into a tree, then the outer end is pulled down thus forcing the sharpened metal edge up to lock in the notch. This creates an extended narrow platform on which to stand while working. Used by fallers (choppers and sawyers) when they cannot work at ground level. (also:  foot board, chopping board)
spring hammer: A machine-driven hammer actuated by a compressed spring or by compressed air wherein the hammer is aligned with the anvil. A more contemporary form of forging tool. (see: drop hammer)
springboard axe: a (localized) term used in the Pacific Northwest to refer to a falling axe used while working on a springboard.
Springer axe: most likely an axe made by a specific axe maker by the name of Springer, as compared to a style or design of axe. ca. 1849.  Moses Springer, Bangor, Maine. Apparently a short-term axe making competitor of manufacturers like Collins.
squaring axe: another term used for a broad axe. (aslo: side axe)
squaw axe: (see trade axe definition 1.)
stamp: 1. a term used to signify the marking used to identify an object. The mark may be impressed or printed (stenciled) depending on the application.
    2. the implement used to make such a mark. (ex: roll stamp, impact stamp, hand stamp)
(There are six primary applications of stamps: a maker’s stamp, an owner’s stamp, a distributor’s stamp, a grader’s stamp, a weight or size stamp and a decorative stamp.)
stamped mark: a design, or mark, that has been hammered or struck into the material using a die or device that will produce a predetermined shape.
stamped marking:  the logo or other identifying mark applied to a piece of material by pressing or striking usually with a harder piece of metal that has a design on the contact surface.
steel: fundamentally iron that has a high content of carbon (and sometimes other minerals) that results in a much harder material than plain wrought iron and therefore can be sharpened more effectively.
    cast steel: (see individual descriptions)
        crucible steel: steel that is formed by slowly heating and cooling pure iron and carbon (originally in the form of
        charcoal) in a crucible
        Damascus steel: two layers of Wootz steel hammer-welded together then repeatedly heated and folded over and
        hammer or forge-welded again, the process being repeated a number of times resulting in a very tough steel
        capable of holding a very sharp edge. The end result show surfaces that are banded usually in irregular
        not parallel lines.
    English steel: high quality steel obtained from England during the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth
         centuries. Usage was initially mandated by England.
        German steel: a metal made from bog iron ore in a forge using charcoal for fuel.
        high carbon steel: steel with between one and two percent carbon content which allows the steel to be tempered.
    laminated steel: steel used for blades and produced by layering a high quality steel between outer layers of
        softer, more flexible steel resulting in a blade that could be honed to a very sharp edge with less chance of
         breakage. often obtained from Eskilstuna, Sweden and called Eskilstuna steel.
    mild steel: steel with less than one percent carbon content, it cannot be tempered.
    Norway steel: high quality steel obtained from Norway during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
    Swedish steel: high quality steel obtained from Sweden during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
        Wootz steel: initially made in small batches by combining crucible steel, iron ore, charcoal and glass; believed to
         have originated in India and later exported to the middle east where it was used to make Damascus steel.
steeling: the process of locating and fastening the steel  bit into the scarf in the wrought iron head.
stick: a slang term that refers to a standing section of a tree that has been limbed and is ready to fall. Also used to refer to a log (usually long) that has already been cut down.
sticking: a term used to describe the situation when an axe got stuck in the wood.
strapped head: a method of attaching or reinforcing the head of a striking tool to the handle with straps (usually metal) The straps are part of or otherwise attached to the head, extend along the sides of the handle and are riveted through the handle. (also: ligulated head)
striated: a surface that has shallow, grooves running parallel to one another. (see: serrated)
striking tools: a hand tool that is swung thus causing the cutting edge,  face or point to make contact with more force.
string tag: 1. a piece of heavy paper or cardstock with space for an address of a sender and/or destination, a printed description of the attached article, an advertisement or any combination of the afore-mentioned along with a string or twistable wire that permitted the tag to be readily attached to an article for shipping and/or identification purposes.
    2. a piece of cardstock with some form of identification related to the article to which it was intended to be attached. The reverse side often had space for the stock number or price. Usually printed in color or on colored cardstock with a string looped through a punched hole and used to attach the tag to a product.
strong mark: a contemporary term used to describe a stamped or etched mark applied to a tool. Such marks are readily discernible and all or most of the details are distinguishable. (see: weak mark, partial mark)
struck: the application of a mark resulting from a marking stamp being driven into a surface and leaving an impression of the design on the stamp.
stub: a dead tree that is still standing,usually characterized by a broken off top and devoid of most branches.
stump: the portion of a tree below where the tree is cut off.
stumpage: 1. standing or uncut timber.
     2. the right to cut and remove the timber from a tract of land.
stunning axe: (see: poll axe, also: killing axe)
stunt edge (end): a term used to describe an edge of an axe that has been sharpened on less of an angle than the “keen” edge. The stunt edge was used for clearing and chopping off hard branches. (see: keen edge)
swage (swage block): a heavy piece of strong metal such as steel with a depression formed in the shape of the desired end form. A hot piece of metal is pounded into the depression or compressed between two swage blocks to form the desired end shape.
swamper: one who clears underbrush, fallen trees and other removable obstacles from areas that will be used as roads, camps or the like.  (also: beaver)
swamping: 1. the falling of small trees and/or the cutting and removal of brush within a area to allow for unobstructed working conditions as well as an escape route.
    2. the clearing of the obstructions including fallen trees and underbrush or to open up an obstructed road or work area.
swamping axe: a heavy, wide-bladed axe intended for clearing brush and small diameter trees and underbrush when establishing roads, paths or work areas around larger trees.
swamp-out: the clearing of brush and other undergrowth from the base of a tree o provide a safer working area and escape route should it be needed. (also: brush-out, swamping)
Swede Hoe: (see: muckscoop)
swell knob: (see: end knob, fawn  foot)
unbroken unit: (unbroken package, unbroken container) items in packages that were originated by the manufacturer and used as a standard for quantity shipments. Units might be designated as: each, 1/6 doz. 1/4 doz., 1/3 doz., 1/2 doz., doz., score, gross (or fraction of a gross), etc. Weights and square footage along with fractions thereof were also used.
underbucking: cross cutting a log from the bottom and cutting upward. This process is used when the log is supported on both sides of the cut and when cutting completely from the top would cause binding. (also: undercutting)
undercut: the wedge shaped area that is removed before any other cuts are made on the side of a tree thus determining in which direction it will fall. (also: notch, box)
undercutter: a woodsman who chops the notch in trees so that they shall fall in the proper direction.
undercutter axe: an axe with the appearance of a modified mattock with a regular axe bit on one end and a narrow cross bit on the opposite side. Also similar in some respects to a Pulaski but the cross bit is approximately 1 1/4” wide or less. Advertised to be used to free up chainsaws when they got bound up in the kerf. (also: chainsaw axe, chisel axe)
undercutting: 1. when felling: the process of removing a wedge shaped section on the side to which the tree is intended to fall. This is the first cut or front cut.
    2. when bucking: the process of making an upward  cut from the bottom of the fallen tree to reduce the efffects of the saw binding.
underhand cut: the procedure in which the chopper stands on the log or block and chops through it with downward blows of the axe. Now mostly a competitive wood chopping event.
union label: a marking used on or in conjunction with another label or as a separate label applied to a product to indicate that the product was made by union labor.
unit: related to standardized weights and measures; such as standard amounts...gross, hundred, dozen, or fixed fraction thereof, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/6 or by specific weight, liquid or dry volume. Also involved units like barrel, keg, bale, bundle, roll, etc.
upsetting: the process or procedure of modifying the head of an axe so a replacement section of blade can be added to take the place of the original cutting bit. (see: re-steeling, jumped)
utility axe: an all-purpose chopping axe that was designed for general use after the heydays of logging. A common contemporary axe.
tap: 1. the process of cutting through the bark on certain coniferous trees so the sap will flow and can be collected for further processing into “navel stores”.
       2.  a  hollow tube-like device inserted into a maple tree on a slight downward angle so the sap can run out and be collected. (also: spile)
tapered eye: the eye or socket through the axe head is considerably narrower at the end nearest the cutting edge thus permitting more taper to the overall head shape while providing for a strong wedging effect.
tapping axe: a long, narrow bladed axe with an extended poll used in the process of harvesting sap used for making maple syrup or obtaining navel stores such as resin to use as a sealant or for making turpentine.
team axe: an axe that belongs to the company and can be used by any member of the crew or team, as compared to an axe owned or assigned to an individual.
teamster: a person whose occupation is driving teams that pull wagons or other animal powered contrivances or a person that drives a truck.
teamster’s axe: an axe carried in a wagon or coach and used for clearing fallen trees and other debris from the road. The name is determined by the use rather than pattern.
tempered: metal treated by controlled heating and cooling until a specific hardness is reached.
temperer: a person who engages in the process of heat treating metal for the purposes of balancing the qualities of hardness and brittleness.
temperer’s mark: a permanent indication in the form of an impression or imprint signifying the individual who tempered the material or item.
three-quarter axe: (see miner’s axe)
third quality: goods that are obviously damaged to a small degree that might effect top rate performance and/or goods that have a significantly flawed finish.
thin bladed axe: an axe, usually double-bitted, wherein the thickness of the head is thinner than the norm and made that way so it had more clearance and presumedly better balance than a conventional, or heavy, axe head.
thistle hook: (Scottish thistle hook) somewhat lighter weight than a brush hook with a curved blade attached to a long handle for swinging. Sometimes reinforced with bar or tang between back of blade and handle.  Primarily used in Great Britain.
three-quarter axe: (see miner’s axe)
throwing axe: a contemporary double bit axe with pronounced concave top and bottom edges and curved cutting edges that are not normally as sharp as a work axe. Such axes are intended for throwing competition associated with logging sports.
tie hacker: one who split logs and hewed (squared) them for use as railroad ties.
tie pick: a stout, heavy-duty  short pick similar in appearance to a pickaroon but heavier, used for removing railroad ties.
timber: (multiple meanings depending on use)
    1. trees in general.  
    2. standing trees suitable for harvesting and using for commercial purposes.
    3. felled trees already squared or suitable for future processing into construction sizes.
timber dog: a device made from steel bar stock with pointed ends that are bent to form an elongated heavy duty staple-like holding implement used when securing logs or similar wood when being dressed, squared or notched.  
timber getter: (Australian) one who fells trees by chopping. (also: logger)
timberhick: (see: woodhick)
toe: the upper corner of the cutting edge on an axe blade, farthest from the user.
tomahawk:.a narrow headed, rounded eye, usually short handled striking tool similar to a hatchet or short axe, used for light chopping but more commonly as a weapon. as a weapon.
Tommy axe: 1. a hatchet or house axe with a rectangular head and a nail claw at the handle end of the poll.
    2. a single bit axe with a pickaroon spike extending in the opposite direction from the poll. Used in the pulp wood industry.
topman: a lumberman that climbs a tall tree and cuts off the top portion before the tree is felled. (also: high climber, topper)
topper : (see: topman)
topping: the process of cutting the top section of a standing tree to reduce the degree of lash or snap back where the remaining portion of the tree comes in contact with the earth when it is felled; also done to provide a place for securing pulleys and other gear such as on a spar tree.
topping axe: a falling axe that has had the handle modified to around 24” with a hole near the butt end for a rope. Used by a topman for removing branches on a spar tree or the top section of the tree.
touch mark: in some cases an unobtrusive marking permanently applied to an item to indicate the actual maker. Some mark could be applied to softer metals by striking the marking tool while it was in contact with the metal being marked. Metal used for axe could be marked by “touching” the marking tool to the surface of hot metal as if applying a brand. Another application method involved etching. Early touch marks used on axes were relatively simple in appearance. (see: maker’s mark, guide mark)
track adze: (see: railroad adze)
trade axe:  1.  a crudely or rudimentarily made axe with a rounded eye tapering toward a flared wider bit similar to what later became known as Spanish pattern axes.  Early versions were 8” to 9” and intended for felling and general chopping. Smaller versions of the same design were used as weapons by Indians and belt axes by early trappers. Later refinements in the design led to the development of the tomahawk. The hatchet sized trade axes were often called “squaw axes”.
     2. (according to Mercer) these axes were flat-topped, long-bit, lacking a poll and had an extended or collared eye resulting in a blade that was much heavier than the poll. Early trade axes from Europe often included small circular and crossed impressions suggestive of blacksmiths marks but applied almost as decoration.
trade label:  relatively common term used in Great Britain for a paper label that is affixed to a tool; comparable to a decal or decalcomania.
trademark: (™) a symbol, design, logo, word(s), letter(s), etc. used by a manufacturer or dealer to distinguish a product or products from those of competitors. usually registered and protected by law. (see: service mark) (old spelling: trade mark)
trade name: 1. the name by which a commodity is commonly referred to, especially within a specific trade.
    2. a name used by a concern to identify or describe a product, service, etc., often specifically.
    3. a name that is the trademark or service mark.
    4. the name under which a company conducts business.
timber dog: a device made from steel bar stock with pointed ends that are bent to form an elongated heavy duty staple-like holding implement used when securing logs or similar wood when being dressed, squared or notched.
trap setting tool: a  small adze-like tool with an elongated blade, somewhat curved at the end and an extended pole similar to that of a hammer. designed to be used with one hand for setting rabbit traps. (Most common in Australia, frequently made in England) (also: rabbet trap setting tool)
tree topper: (top man) a woodsman that climbs the tree to such a point where he can chop off the upper section that has no commercial value.
tree topper’s axe: a double bit axe with a rather short handle (26 inches or less) and a 12 foot drop line attached to the handle. Used by a climber to top a tree prior to felling the main trunk.
trip hammer: a heavy, gravity powered hammer that is mechanically raised by means of a cam and periodically allowed to free-fall onto a given spot or area. (also: triphammer)
truckman’s axe: a fire axe ranging from 4 1/2 lbs. to 6 lbs. with a 28” handle, carried on a belt attachment by a fireman who rode the truck in a standing position.
turf axe: (see: sod axe)
turning hook: another name for a cant hook or cant dog
turpentine axe: an axe with a head similar to a broad axe design but with a long concave cutting edge that produced a wide slash around the curvature of a tree when struck at the proper angle. (also: apron axe, cupping axe)
twybill: (twibill, two-bill) a mortising tool used more by bushing or via short deliberate strokes to form and dress a mortise. The two long bits include one shaped like a long chisel while the other is ground across the thickness to form a narrow plane-like cutting edge. When handled, the handle is used more for control and leverage, not for swinging. Erroneously referred to as a mortising axe. (also: chisel axe, cross axe)