*4,859X    Aug. 24, 1827    Cast Iron Plane Stock
                   Hazard Knowles, Colchester, Conn.    
         184    Apr. 29, 1837     Spoke Shave
                   Ira L. Beckwith, Quincy, Mass.    
      9,094    July 6, 1852       Securing Irons
                   Birdsill Holly, Seneca Falls, N. Y.    
    13,846    Nov. 27, 1855    Coopers’ Tool
                   Joel P. Heacock, Marlboro, Ohio    
    14,018    Jan. 1, 1856         Spoke Shave
                   Elijah Holmes, Lynn, Mass.    
    14,635    Apr. 8, 1856         Spoke Shave
                   Martin Snow, North Bridgewater, Mass.    
    17,111    Apr. 21, 1857     Spoke Shave
                   Manley Packard, No. Bridgewater, Mass.    
    20,459    June 1, 1858      Spoke Shave
                   Charles H. Weston, Nashua, N. H.     
    20,855    July 13, 1858     Spoke Shave  
                   Leonard Bailey, Winchester, Mass.    
    20,960    July 20, 1858     Heel Shave    
                   Varanes Snell, North Bridgewater, Mass.    
    21,311    Aug. 13, 1858    Securing Plane (& Shave) Irons
                   Leonard Bailey, Winchester, Mass.    
    22,889    Feb. 8, 1859      Heel and Spoke Shave     
                   Joseph A. Perley, Lynn, Mass.    
    23,927    May 10, 1859     Spoke Shave
                   Tolman Benjamin, Penbrook, Mass.
    30,071    Sept. 18, 1860   Spoke Shave
                   Samuel Leonard, Bridgewater, Mass.
    30,648    Nov. 13, 1860     Improved Heel Shave
                   D. E. Somes, Biddeford, Maine    
    32,617    June 25, 1861    Spoke Shave
                   Martin Colton, Sardinia, N. Y.    
    33,589    Oct. 29, 1861     Improved Spoke Shave
                   John Jennings Jr., Natick, Mass.    
    36,035    July 29, 1862      Boot Heel Shave    
                   E. S. Snell, North Bridgewater, Mass.
    40,437    Oct. 27, 1863     Spoke Shave
                   Melzer Tuells, Penn Yan, N. Y.    
    42,306    Apr. 12, 1864     Sole and Heel Shave
                   Owen B. Parker, Hopkinton, Mass.    
    44,420    Sept. 27, 1864    Shoe Shave
                   Israel Hayes, Farmington, N.H.    
    45,669    Dec. 27, 1864     Edge Plane
                   James H. Conklin, Yorktown (Heights), N.Y.
    48,448    May 27, 1865     Heel Shave    
                   John G. Ross, Philadelphia, Pa.    
    51,339    Dec. 5, 1865      Spoke Shave    
                   Silas S. Mowry, Providence, R.I.    
    53,698    Apr. 3, 1866       Spoke Shaves
                   John G. Steiger, Cleveland, Ohio    
    55,599    Jun. 19, 1866     Spoke Shaves     
                    Leonard Bailey, Boston, Mass.    
    56,651    July 24, 1866     Cabinet Scraper
                   Frank A. Williams, Cincinnati, Ohio    
    61,384    Jan. 22, 1867    Boot Edge Plane
                   William Bayhouse, Portland, Ore.    
    67,313    July 30, 1867     Boot and Shoe Shave
                   Albert E. Johnson, Oxford, Mass.    
    70,894    Nov. 12, 1867    Edge Plane For Shoes
                   John Plummer, Binghamton, N. Y.    
    72,724    Dec. 31, 1867    Heel Shaves    
                   F. S. Dawes, Hudson, Mass.    
    73,588    Jan. 21, 1868    Shoe Shave    
                   Marius Elliott, New England Village, Mass.
    73,723    Jan. 28, 1868    Spoke Shave    
                   Seth T. Hutchins, North Anson, Mo.    
    78,373    May 26, 1868    Vegetable Slicer    
                   Elijah Holmes, Lynn, Mass.    
    83,168    Oct. 20, 1868    Splint Knife
                   S. Friend & J. McCollom, Decatur, Ill.
    84,140    Nov. 17, 1868   Shoe Shave    
                   James Y. Simons, Troy, N. Y.    
    85,077    Dec. 22, 1868   Boot and Shoe Shave
                   L. F. Farnsworth, Hudson, Mass.    
    86,741    Feb. 9, 1869      Box Scraper    
                   William Dutton, Boston, Mass.    
    86,851    Feb. 9, 1869      Molding Plane    
                   A. W. Maxwell, Milton, Pa.    
    86,958    Feb. 16, 1869    Boot and Shoe Shave
                   Walter Wilber, New Salem, Mass.    
    88,551    Apr. 6, 1869       Boot Edge Plane
                   C. Coti, Marlborough, Mass.    
    88,920    Apr. 13, 1869     Boot Shave    
                   Thomas Smiley, Albia, Iowa    
    97,802    Dec. 14, 1869    Spoke Shave
                   Joseph A. Perley, Lynn, Mass.    
    98,475    Jan. 4, 1870      Spoke Shave    
                   Joshua Davies, Muskegon, Mich.    
    99,466    Feb. 1, 1870      Boot and Shoe Shave
                   Sumner Packard, Grafton, Mass.
   100,724   May 15, 1870    Boot and Shoe Shave
                    A. B. Clark, North Oxford, Mass.    
  105,766    July 26, 1870     Box Scraper    
                   Joseph R. Bailey, Woonsocket, R. I.    
  107,653    Sept. 27, 1870   Molding Tool     
                   Charles E. Boynton, San Francisco, Cal.
  110,168    Dec. 13, 1870    Spoke Shave    
                   George N. Stearns, Syracuse, N. Y.    
  124,435    Mar. 12, 1872    Spoke Shave    
                   Jacob Groben, Buffalo, N. Y.     
  124,638    Mar. 12,  1872   Boot and Shoe Shave
                   Byron A. Stockwell, Sutton, Mass.    
  128,757    July 9, 1872       Heel Shave    
                   Joseph H. Sanford, No. Bridgewater, Mass.
  130,291    Aug. 6, 1872     Hand Sole Cutter
                   Edwin W. French, So. Situate, Mass.    
  137,329    Apr. 1, 1873      Wood Scraper    
                   Henry D. Spickler, Canton, Ohio    
  138,328    Apr. 29, 1873    Boot and Shoe Shave
                   Dexter Harrington, Southbridge, Mass.
  142,720    Sept. 9, 1873    Drawing Knife
                   Elmon Parker, Chambersburg, Pa.    
  148,054    Mar. 3, 1874      Shoe Shave
                   Theodore Harrington, Southbridge, Mass.
  157,110    Nov. 24, 1874    Heel Shave
                   Merrill A. Tyler, New Durham, N. H.    
  157,300    Dec. 1, 1874     Heel Shave
                   Luther T. Snell, Needham, Mass.    
  159,312    Feb. 2, 1875     Heel Shave    
                   G. P. Foster, Leicester, Mass.    
  159,548    Feb. 9, 1875     Shoe Shave    
                   Theodore Harrington, Southbridge, Mass.
  161,958    Apr. 13, 1875    Shoe Shave    
                   Dexter Harrington, Southbridge, Mass.
  164,885    June 22, 1875   Heel Shave
                    Nathaniel A. Swett, Westbrook, Mass
  174,399     Mar. 7, 1876      Spoke Shave    
                    A. Wood, Manlius, N. Y.    
  176,151     Apr. 18, 1876     Spoke Shave    
                    Justus A. Traut, New Britain, Conn.    
  182,320      Sept. 19, 1876  Spoke Shave    
                     George Mosher, New Britain, Conn.
  182,881      Oct. 3, 1876       Box Scraper    
                     Leonard Bailey, Hartford, Conn.    
  193,373      July 24, 1877    Molding Tool     
                     James H. Lewis, Detroit, Mich.    
  205,593      July 2, 1878      Heel Shave
                     F. P. Warren, Springfield, Mass.
  211,515      Jan.  21, 1879    Bench Tool
                     James H. Lewis, Detroit, Mich.    
  211,852      Feb. 4, 1879      Plane (and Spoke Shave)
                     Andrew Johnson, Chicago, Ill.    
        As a point of clarification, over a period of time the term spokeshave has been treated as both a single word “spokeshave” and as a double word “spoke shave.” The older American version usually treated the term as two words. Around 1911 the US Patent Office started to treat the term as one word. Interestingly, that is the way it was treated in England all alone. With that in mind, the reader should hopefully have a better understanding as to why it is used in both ways.
     The identification of patents applicable to spokeshaves and similar tools has been gathered from diverse sources. The earliest and most notable source was published in 1977 by William Hilton of Lynn, Massachusetts. Mr. Hilton’s work, entitled Index of Plane and Spoke Shave Patents, has been cross referenced with patent lists generated from CASSIS (Classification and Search Support Information System) used at Patent Deposit Libraries. Other patents have been traced from dated artifacts.
    Experience has shown that determining the applicability of a patent to a specific type of tool does not always involve the obvious. Just because a patent has a title indicating a type of tool does not mean that the category is exclusive. Quite frequently applicability was diversified which may have been stated in the patent. The title for Patent No.211,852 indicated it dealt with a plane. A brief mention in the third from the last paragraph was the only indication that the patent could also be applied to spokeshaves. It required more than one review to realize that thorough reading would have resolved the question earlier.
    Other situations have indicated that a patent  may be  applied  to applications  not even mentioned in the specifications or indicated in the graphics. Joseph Bailey’s patent No.105,766 and Leonard Bailey’s patent No.182,881 are two examples where box scraper patents were applied to spokeshaves. Leonard Bailey had included patent dates on some tools where the number had been issued for one type of tool and the patent date was included on others ... case in point:  the method of securing the caps in shaves as well as the listed plane cap application.
Compiled by Tom Lamond
    212,654     Feb. 25, 1879    Heel Shave
                     Charles H. Brown, East Bridgewater, Mass.
    213,257    Mar. 11, 1879    Spoke Shave (draw knife)
                     Chas. Spring, Hyde Park, Mass.
    213,827    Apr. 1, 1879       Heel Shaver
                     Horace A. Lothrop, Sharon, Mass.    
    223,583    Jan. 13, 1880     Heel Shaver    
                     Oscar E. Durham, Brockton, Mass.    
    234,038    Nov. 2, 1880      Shoe Edge Shaver
                     Albert E. Johnson, Oxford, Mass.    
    237,907    Feb. 15, 1881    Bead-cutter For Boots
                     Henry S. Rogers, Auburn, N. Y.    
    239,137    Mar. 22, 1881    Heel Shave    
                     William R. Barton, Bridgewater, Mass.
    240,076    Apr. 12, 1881     Spoke Shave    
                     Louis Bauer, San Francisco, Cal.
    249,097    Nov. 1, 1881      Shave
                     Henry P. Roberts, Jamestown, N. Y.
    249,637    Nov. 15, 1881    Shoe Edge Plane
                     Charles A. Kilpatrick, Athens, Pa.    
    257,870    May 16, 1882     Cavity Plane    
                     Frank A. Humphrey, Worcester, Mass.
    261,353    July 18, 1882     Heel Shave Holder
                     Julius Jaquet, Milwaukee, Wis.    
    270,870    Jan. 16, 1883    Cavity Plane
                     James England, New York, N. Y.
    273,073    Feb. 27, 1883    Spoke Shave    
                     Andre S. Haynes, Rome, N. Y.    
    289,459    Dec. 4, 1883      Spoke Shave
                     Gary B. Smith, Denver, Conn.     
     293,651   Feb. 19, 1884    Spoke Shave    
                     Albert D. Goodell, Millers Falls, Mass.
    294,197    Feb. 26, 1884   Spoke Shave    
                     Addison E. Chapman, Olean, N. Y.    
    300,266    June 10, 1884   Cabinet Scraper
                     John A. Keiser, Cincinnati, Ohio    
    303,086    Aug. 5, 1884     Trimmer For Boot Heel
                     Joseph C. Wetmore, Lynn, Mass.    
    305,603    Sept. 23, 1884  Cabinet Scraper
                     John A. Keiser, Cincinnati, Ohio    
    313,617    Mar. 10, 1885    Beading Tool
                     L. V. Poole & O. E. Williams, Windsor, Vt.
    319,161    June 2, 1885     Hand Beader
                     O. E. Williams & L. V. Poole, Windsor, Vt.
    322,304    July 14, 1885     Chamfer Spoke Shave
                     James Mender, Philadelphia, Pa.
    325,571    Sept. 1, 1885     Spoke Shave    
                     Charles W. Smith, Westerly, R. I.    
    326,435    Sept. 15, 1885   Hand Beading Tool
                     Elton P. Kendall, Windsor, Vt.    
    335,856    Feb. 9, 1886      Hand Beader    
                    Justus A. Traut, New Britain, Conn.    
    351,428    Oct. 26, 1886    Heel Shaver    
                     B. Drummond, Massie's Mill, Vir.    
    352,056    Nov. 2, 1886      Beading Tool    
                     Oscar E. Hildebrand, Norwich, Conn.
    356,429    Jan. 18, 1887    Routing Tool
                     Henry F. Stearns, Saratoga, N. Y.    
    357,898    Feb. 15, 1887    Spoke Shave
                     Samuel Benson, Allegheny City, Pa.
    368,003    Aug. 9, 1887      Spoke Shave
                     James H. Polhemus, Brooklyn, N. Y    
    378,854    Feb. 28, 1888    Carriage Maker’s Tool
                     Justus A. Traut, New Britain, Conn.    
    383,590    May 29, 1888    Spoke Shave
                     James H. Polhemus, Brooklyn, N. Y.
    393,487    Nov. 27, 1888   Edge Shave For Boots
                     August Schillmoller, Oakland, Cal.    
    395,738    Jan. 8, 1889      Spoke Shave
                     Isaac Camier, Chicago, Ill.    
    417,144    Dec. 10, 1889    Spoke Shave    
                     Isaac Camier, Chicago, Ill.    
    420,232    Jan. 28, 1890    Molding Groove Plane
                     Gustave Heymeier, Bremen, Germany
    452,498    May 19, 1891    Spoke Shave    
                     John F. Magnuson, New York, N. Y    
    468,239    Feb. 2, 1892      Draw Shave    
                     George M. Conover, Cleveland, Ohio
    483,294    Sept. 27, 1892   Spoke Shave    
                     Edward D. White, Hartford, Conn.    
    508,427    Nov. 14, 1893    Spoke Shave    
                     Herbert D. Lanfair, Erving, Mass.    
    546,321    Aug. 17, 1895    Spoke Shave    
                     Albert Gumz, Milwaukee, Wis.    
    547,924    Oct. 15, 1895     Round Scraper
                     Peter Keltsch, Erlangen, Germany    
    555,228    Feb. 26, 1896    Spoke Shave     
                     Justus A. Traut, New Britain, Conn.    
    605,582    June 14, 1898    Leather Cutting Tool
                     Francis E. Merriman, Boston, Mass.    
     636,231   Oct. 30, 1899     Heel Shave    
                     Eric Hoglund, Los Angeles, Cal.    
    646,262    Mar. 27, 1900     Wood Plane    
                     Herbert M. Coe, Phoenix, Ariz.    
    668,299    Feb. 19, 1901     Spoke Shave    
                     Justus A. Traut, New Britain, Conn.
    679,702    July 30, 1901     Spoke Shave    
                     Walter D. Murray, Portland, Maine
    744,411    Nov. 17, 1903     Spoke Shave    
                     Huldege Sarasin, Amesbury, Mass.    
   752,365     Feb. 16, 1904    Spoke Shave    
                     John H. Spear, Springfield, Mass.    
   778,922     Jan. 3, 1905      Woodworking Tool
                     Justus A. Traut, New Britain, Conn.    
   779,486     Jan. 10, 1905    Heel Shave
                     Reinhold Metzenthin, Wanganui, N. Z.
   868,803     Oct. 8, 1907      Beading Tool    
                     Alphonse Pellrin, Detroit, Mich.    
   917,568     Apr. 6, 1909      Scraper    
                     Andrew Ekman, Grand Rapids, Mich.
   992,392     May 16, 1911    Spokeshave    
                     Tucholski & Koziczenski, Racine, Wis.
   995,755     Apr. 20,1911     Spokeshave    
                     Dominick Zemborski, Carthage,Ill.
1,016,608     Feb. 6,1912       Spokeshave    
                     Peter Caretti, Connellsville, Pa.    
1,031,036     Jul. 2, 1912       Spokeshave
                     Isaiah Bazley, Quincy, Mass.    
1,332,919     Mar. 19, 1920   Spokeshave    
                     Adolph P. Ritter, Chicago, Ill.    
1,663,935     Mar. 27,1928     Spokeshave    
                     Anton Cornell, New York, NY    
1,738,108     Dec. 3, 1929      Spokeshave    
                     Frederick L. Mayer, Milwaukee, Wis.
5,212,870     May 25, 1993    Edge Planer
                    Chi, Chih-Sung, Taichung Hsien, Taiwan
5,353,507    Oct. 11, 1994     Beading Tool
                    Lee, Leonard G., Lee, Robin, C,,
                     McLean, Francis A. Ottawa, CAN
7,216,435    May 15, 2007      Adj. Wood Spokeshave
           Siemers & Saunders, Ottawa, CAN
D516,404    Mar. 7, 2006        Spokeshave (Design)
        Siemers, Matthew Bruce, Ottawa, CAN
D499,770    Mar. 7 2006         Spokeshave (Design)
        Siemers, Matthew Bruce, Ottawa, CAN
D563,190    Mar. 4, 2008         Pull Shave (Design)
                    Lee, Robin C., Saunders, Terry R.,  
                    Siemers, Matthew B., Ottawa, CAN
D591,508    May 5, 2009          Beading Tool (Design)
                    Hyde, Brent K., Jones, Steven K.,  Ottawa, CAN
(Incomplete... Found under Class 61: Abridgment Class Hand Tools plus some Design Patents)
   4,337    Apr. 8, 1885        Spokeshaves and Like Tools
                 C. Marples
  12,458    Oct. 19, 1885       Spokeshaves     
                 (Adjustment) Edward Preston
     8,291   June 23, 1886       Spokeshaves     
                 (Hand reeder) Edward Preston
  16,707    Dec. 20, 1886       Spokeshaves & Like Tools    
                 (Unknown) W. H. Whitear
    1,667    Feb. 4, 1888       Routers
                (Small molding tool) Edward Preston
    4,553    Mar. 15, 1889       Spokeshaves
                 R. vonSchmitz and G. Heymeier
    1,123    Jan. 20, 1892       Heel Shaves       
                 (Unknown) I. Dilley
  15,264    Aug. 25, 1892       Spokeshaves     
                (Unknown) R. Stevens
  22,998    Dec. 14, 1892    Spokeshaves (Chamfer)
                 John Beaton, Chiselhurst, Kent
       399    Jan. 7, 1895      Spokeshaves
                 G. A. Kleinknecht, P. & P. Keltsch
  15,549    ?    ?   1898      Spokeshaves         
                 (Adjustment, Unknown) E. Preston
    20,062    ?    ?    1898         Spokeshaves
                    (Adjustment, Unknown) E. Preston
    17,234    Aug. 17, 1908   Spokeshaves         
                    (Folding Handles, Unconfirmed) E. Preston
    20,062    Sept. 24, 1908 Spokeshaves     
                    (Adjustment) E. Preston    
    13,699    June 8, 1911    Spokeshaves         
                    (Hand reeder, unconfirmed) E. Preston
      4,202    June 8, 1911    Spokeshaves         
                    (Beader, unconfirmed)  E.Preston
    20,216    Sept. 5, 1912   Spokeshaves           
                    (Adjustment) E. Preston & C. E. Saunders
  320,221    July 15, 1898   Spokeshave Design         
                     (EP #1377) E. Preston & Sons    
  328,028    Oct. 25, 1898   Router Design          
                     (Oveloe Sash EP#1391) E. Preston & Sons
  356,049    Apr. 12, 1900   Spokeshave Design
                    (EP #1373 & 1374) E. Preston & Sons
NOTE: The non sequential numbering of British patents is due to the system that was used by the British Patent Office. It is understood that a system subsequently introduced provides for sequential numbering  commencing from the time of introduction. No renumbering of existing patents was involved.
NOTE: As of March 2008 this list is considered to be complete but as the accessing of information increases it may be determined that additional utility and/or design patents specifically related to spokeshaves may have been issued. As they come to light they will be added to this list.
Some descriptive titles of the patents are misleading but analysis has shown that they do apply to spokeshaves and similar tools.
    Another example of application involved patent No.78,373 issued to Elijah Holmes. The patent was issued for a vegetable cutter. Mr. Holmes included the concept in a spokeshave.
     There are those that may well appear to be patented but no markings whatsoever are included nor is there any mention in the known patent records. Knowles’s patent No.4859X is an example. It is the first patent on the list and is marked with an asterisk (*). Whether any shaves were actually made by Knowles, or with his permission, is unknown but some certainly reflect his ideas and designs and are therefore representative of his patent.
        There appears to be an extended period of time from 1929 through 2004 wherein no spokeshave patent activity is evident. That may be deceptive in some respects as quite often patent titles were misleading reportedly to deter competition from piggy-backing on recently patented ideas. In reality some “new” designs in spokeshaves did appear and in 2004 two design patents were issued for spokeshaves that had originated in Canada and were patented in the US. A utility patent applicable for a spokeshave was issued in 2007. The three recent patents were all assigned to Lee Valley Tools of Ottawa, Canada.
      Patent research can be a very interesting but is usually time consumptive. Patent copies may be obtained from the U. S. Patent Office for a fee if you have the numbers and the time to wait for replies. An alternative is to visit one of the sixty or so Patent Depository Libraries which are all open to the public. Information can be obtained from your local library or by calling the specific Patent Depository Library in question. Recent technological advances utilizing computer searches has also resulted in access to patents.